? 2021年高考英语动词的时态和语态专题讲义【转自秒词邦高考英语核心单词微信小程序】_秒词邦官网

2021年高考英语动词的时态和语态专题讲义【转自秒词邦高考英语核心单词微信小程序】

2020-08-07 19:05| 发布者: admin| 查看: |

课程标准要求中学生掌握常见的十种时态用法。近三年来各地试题考查最多的是一般过去时、过去完成时、过去进行时、现在完成进行时和现在完成时。高考中动词时态命题,每年每份试卷中都有2~3个小题,每小题均设置明确的语境。一般来说,命题人总是把易混淆或相近的时态放在一起,增加考题的难度。而被动语态的考点大都集中在被动语态的时态,近三年来考查最多的时态是现在完成时,其次是一般过去时。
 
动词时态的考查要点
1.一般现在时考点分析
(1)表示客观事实或普遍真理(不受时态限制)。
Time and tide wait for no man.
(2)表示现状、性质、状态时多用系动词或状态动词;表示经常或习惯性的动作,多用动作动词,且常与表频率的时间状语连用。
They always care for each other and help each other.
(3)表示知觉、态度、感情、某种抽象的关系或概念的词常用一般现在时:see,hear,smell,taste,feel,notice,agree,believe,like,hate,want,think,belong to,seem等。
Smith owns a car and a house.
All the students here belong to No.1 Middle School.
(4)在时间、条件状语从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。但要注意由if 引导的条件状语从句中可以用shall或will表“意愿”,但不表示时态。
If you will accept my invitation and come to our party,my family will be pleased.
(5)少数用于表示起止的动词如come,go,leave,arrive,fly,return,start,begin,open,close,end,stop等常用一般现在时代替将来时,表示一个按规定、计划或安排要发生的动作。当be表示根据时间或事先安排肯定会出现的状态时,只用一般现在时。
The shop closes at 11∶00 p.m. every day.
Tomorrow is Wednesday.
考题印证
单句语法填空
1.(2017全国III卷) Sarah says,“My dad thinks I should take the offer now. But at the moment, school
(come)first。”
2.(2015・全国卷Ⅱ) This cycle (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus ways a timely offset(抵消) for the out side temperatures.
【答案】goes
【解析】考查动词时态。本句中讲述的是一种新型建筑的客观特点,需用一般现在时态,故填goes。
2.一般过去时考点分析
(1)一般过去时的基本用法:表示过去的事情、动作或状态,常与表示过去具体的时间状语连用(或有上下文语境暗示);用于表达过去的习惯;表示说话人原来没有料到、想到或希望的事通常用过去式。
We met her in the street yesterday.
When he was young,he took cold baths regularly.
(2)如果从句中有一个过去的时间状语,尽管从句中的动作先于主句发生,但从句中的谓语动词仍用过去时。
He told me he read an interesting novel last night.
(3)表示两个紧接着发生的动作,常由以下词语连接,用一般过去时。如:but,and,when,as soon as,immediately,the moment,the minute等。
The moment she came in,she told me what had happened to her.
He bought a watch but lost it.
(4)常用一般过去时的句型。
Why didn’t you think of that?
I didn’t notice it.
I forgot to tell you I had been there with my brother before.
I didn’t recognize him.
3.一般将来时考点分析
(1)表示未来的动作或状态,常用will/shall+动词,常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如:tomorrow,next week等。
(2)表示一种趋向或习惯动作。
We’ll die without air or water.
(3)表示趋向行为的动词如come,go,start,begin,leave等词常用进行时的形式表示将来时。
(4)be going to,will/shall,be to do,be about to do的用法及区别:
be going to 表示现在打算在最近或将来要做某事,这种打算往往经过事先考虑,甚至已做了某种准备;shall/will do表示未事先考虑过,即说话时临时作出的决定。
be going to 表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中;而will则能,表意愿。
If it is fine,we’ll go fishing.[√]
If it is fine,we are going to go fishing.[×]
be to do表按计划、安排即将发生的动作,还可表示吩咐、命令、禁止、可能性等。
A meeting is to be held at 3∶00 o’clock this afternoon.
be about to do表示“即将,正要”,后面不能接时间状语或状语从句。
Autumn harvest is about to start.
4.现在进行时考点分析
(1)表示说话时正在发生着的一个动作;表示现阶段但不一定是发生在讲话时正在进行的动作;表近期特定的安排或计划;go,come等表示移动的动词可用进行时代替将来时;与always,often等频度副词连用,表经常反复的行动或某种感情色彩。
She is teaching English and learning Chinese.
He is working on a paper.
I am meeting Mr. Wang tonight.
We are leaving on Friday.
The girl is always talking loud in public.
(2)下面四类动词不宜用现在进行时。
①表示心理状态、情感的动词:like,love,hate,care,remember,believe,want,mind,wish,agree,mean,need等。
②表存在状态的动词:appear,exist,lie,remain,seem,belong to等。
③表示行为结果的动词:allow,accept,permit,promise,admit,complete等。
④表示感官的动词:see,hear,notice,feel,smell,sound,taste,look等。
考题印证
(2014˙北京高考改编)—Hi,let’s go skating。
—sorry,I’m busy right now.I (fill)in an application form for a new job.
5.过去完成时考点分析
(1)常用过去完成时的几种情况。
①在by,by the end,by the time,until,before,since后接表示过去某一时间的短语或从句的句子中。
By the end of last year,we had produced 20,000 cars.
The train had left before we reached the station.
②表示未曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用had hoped/planned/meant/intended/thought/wanted/expected等或用上述动词的过去式接不定式的完成式,即:hoped/planned...+to have done。
③“时间名词+before”在句中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词+ago”在句中作状语,谓语动词用一般过去时。
He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before.
Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago.
④在hardly/scarcely...when...,no sooner than...句式中,主句常用过去完成时,表示“一……就……”。当hardly,scarcely,no sooner置于句首时,其后要用部分倒装。
We had no sooner been seated than the bus started.=No sooner had we been seated than the bus started.
(2)在before或after引导的时间状语从句中用一般过去时代替过去完成时。
After he (had) left the room,the boss came in.
We arrived home before it snowed.
6.过去将来时考点分析
过去将来时表示从过去的观点来预计以后要发生的动作或存在的状态,这种时态常用于宾语从句中,主句常是一般过去时。
He always said that he would study hard at that time.
7.过去进行时考点分析
过去进行时表示在过去某个时刻正在进行的动作或存在的状态。
He was reading an interesting book this time yesterday.
考题印证
1.(2017˙天津高考改编)I (drive)down to London when I suddenly found that I was on the wrong road.
2.(2018˙北京高考改编)Susan had quit her well-paid job and (work)as a volunteer in a neighbourhood when I visited her last year.
8.现在完成时考点分析
(1)现在完成时除可以和for,since引导的状语连用外,还可以和下面的介词短语连用:during/in/over the last(past) few years(months,weeks),in recent years,so far,up to now等。
(2)下列句型中常用现在完成时
It is(has been)+一段时间+since从句
This(That/It) is the first(second...) time that+现在完成时
This(That/It) is the best/finest/most interesting...+that+现在完成时
(3)在时间或条件状语从句中,现在完成时可以代替将来完成时。
I shall post the letter as soon as I have written it.
If you have done the experiment,you will realize the theory better.
Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped.
9.注意几组时态的区别
(1)一般过去时与现在完成时:
①时间上有差异:凡有过去时间的均用一般过去时,不能用现在完成时,如含有ago,last year,just now,the other day等。
②结果上有差异:现在完成时强调的是对“现在”的影响和结果,动作到现在刚完成或还在继续;一般过去时强调的是动作发生在“过去”,和现在毫无关系。
(2)过去完成时与一般过去时:过去完成时强调的是“过去的过去”;如出现同一主语连续几个动作(“连谓”)形式则只用一般过去时即可。

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