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2021高考英语主谓一致专题讲义【转自秒词邦高考核心单词微信小程序】

2020-08-07 19:17| 发布者: admin| 查看: |

考纲要求:掌握 主谓一致 的原则和用法。近五年全国高考试卷对主谓一致的考查重点在语法填空和短文改错上。了解主谓一致的概念(谓语动词在人称和主语保持一致),掌握主谓一致三原则:
1. 语法一致原则
2. 意义一致原则
3. 就近一致原则
一.语法一致原则
1. 单数主语,单个动词不定式,动名词短语作主语,谓语动词要用单数。
① A student is studying English.一个学生正在学习英语。
② To see is to believe.眼见为实。
考题印证
(2016全国II卷)Leaving the less important things until tomorrow (be)often acceptable.
(2014辽宁高考)The early morning barking have been disturbing us as we are often up all night with the baby.
2. 复数名词、代词作主语,谓语动词一般用复数形式。
① All the students are clever.所有的学生都很聪明。
②They like English very much.他们非常喜欢英语。
考题印证
(2014陕西高考)Suddenly the arrows was flying down at us from the sky—they look like rain!
3. 用and或both…and 连接的单数名词、代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语及主语从句作主语谓语动词用复数形式。
① Both my father and my mother are farmers.我的父母都是农民。
②What I think and what I do have been fairly in disagreement.我的想法和我所做的都有相当大不一致。
注意:当and连接的词表示同一个人、事、物、概念时谓语动词用单数形式。
The poet and writer has come.那个诗人兼作家已经来了。
4. 主语后紧跟as well as, with, along with, like, together with, rather than, except, but, including, besides, in addition to 等时谓语动词要与句子的主语保持一致。
① Nobody but my parents knows the secret.除了我的父母没人知道这个秘密。
② The teacher as well as students is excited.老师学生都很兴奋。
③ The students as well as the teacher have learned to drive a car . 学生和老师都学会了开车。
5. either、neither、no、each、every、many a、 more than one 后加单数名词。
any、some、no、 every构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。either, neither, each单独作主语时谓语动词用单数。
① Everybody is here.全都到了。
② Either of the parents is important to me.父母对我都很重要。
③ Many a boy have made that mistake.很多男孩犯那个错误。
6. 分数或百分数+of+名词/代词作主语,谓语动词的单复数取决于of后的名词或代词的单复数形式。
① Two-thirds of the students come from countryside.三分之二的学生来自乡下。
② Ninety percent of the work has been done. 百分之九十的工作已经完成。
7.定语从句中的主谓一致。
⑴与先行词一致
I, who am your teacher, will share happiness and sorrow with you.我,也是你的老师将和你分享快乐和忧愁。
⑵ which/as代替一句话内容,谓语动词用单数
As is known, she is kind.众所周知,她很善良。
⑶ one of +复数名词 + 定语从句,从句中的谓语用复数形式; the only/exact one of+复数名词 + 定语从句,从句中的谓语用单数形式。
8. 从句作主语时的主谓一致
⑴what 从句作主语应根据表语来决定谓语动词的单复数。
What he’d like most for a birthday present is a car.他最想要的生日礼物是一辆车。
What we badly need here are some English teachers.这里最需要的是英语老师。
⑵以who ,why, how, whether 或 that 引导的名词性从句谓语动词用单数。
二. 意义一致原则
1. 集体名词family, audience, crew, club, class, company, committee, party, crowd group, army, government, the public等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语用单数形式;如果指集体中的各个成员,谓语动词用复数形式。
① My family is a large one.我的家是一个大家庭。
② My family like playing cards.我的家人喜欢玩扑克。
③ The public is the best judge。公众是最好的裁判。
④ The public are invited to express their opinions.公众被邀请表达他们的看法。
2. 表示时间,重量,长度,金钱,数目等的复数名词作主语时,谓语动词常用单数即把主语作一个整体来看。
① Three hours is enough to do the work.三个小时来做这项工作足够了。
② Forty miles is a long distance.四十英里是一段长距离。
注意:如果强调过了多少时日,谓语动词要用复数形式。
Five years have passed.五年过去了。
3. 以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题 某些以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语时,如physics, mathematics, mechanics, optics, acoustics, politics. statistics, economics, linguistics, athletics等, 谓语动词通常用作单数。
e.g. Physics is a fundamental subject in science.物理是一门理科基础学科
4. 其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题
英语中有一些通常以-s结尾的由两部分组成的物体名词,如glasses, pincers, pliers, scissors, shorts, suspenders, trousers等,这类名词做主语,如果不带“一把”、“一副”等单位词,谓语动词通常用复数。
5. 当and连接的并列名词词组带有each,every, no或者many a 等限定词时,谓语动词通常用单数。
e.g. Each student and each teacher has been given a task.每个学生和老师都被给与一项任务。
Every flower and every bush is to be cut down.每朵花和每棵草都要被修剪。
6. The + adj. 原级用于指人时( the old, the rich ,the poor ),谓语动词用复数形式。若指东西,抽象概念或个人时,谓语动词用单数形式。
e.g.①The young are usually active.年轻人通常很活跃。
② The beautiful gives pleasure to all of us.美的东西往往给人以愉悦。
7. none作主语时谓语动词用单、复数均可,且以复数更普遍。
① None of them have/has failed.他们都成功了。
② None have/has arrived yet.还没有人到达。
③ None money of the money is mine.这些钱都不是我的。
8. 有些单词如:who, most, all, the rest, half, some 等即可表示单数也可表示复数意义,谓语动词随其意义而定。
9. 有些名词如:deer, sheep, means,works, species, people等用作单数或复数均可,谓语动词随其含义而定。
① This glass works was built in 1978.这玻璃建筑建成于1978年。
② East of the city are two steel works.这座城市的东部有两个钢铁建筑。
③ The Chinese people are brave and hard-working.中国人民勇敢又勤劳。
④ The Chinese people is a brave and hard-working.中华民族是一个勤劳勇敢的民族。
10. a/this/that + kind of +名词(单数或复数)作主语时,谓语动词用单数;如果主语是kinds(types) of+名词或复数名词of+ a ( this, that)kind时,谓语动词用复数形式。
① The kind of apples sell well.这种苹果很畅销。
② Men of this kind are dangerous . 这种类型的人很危险。
11. 主语是a large/small quantity of +名词(可数或不可数)谓语动词用单数;如果是“large (great) quantifies of +名词(可数或不可数)”时,谓语动词要用复数。也就是说谓语动词随quantity单复数而定。
① There is a large quantity of apples on the farm。农场里有大量的苹果。
② Large quantities of water are needed here.这里需要大量的水。
12. a number of +名词复数作主语时谓语动词用复数形式;The number of +名词复数谓语动词用单数形式。
①A number of workers are out of work.大量的工人失业。
②The number of the students in our school is eight thousand.我们学校的学生人数是8,000.
13. 两数相减或相除,谓语动词用单数;两数相加或相乘,谓语动词可用单数,也可用复数。
① Sixty minus seventeen leaves forty-three.60减17等于43.
② Six and eight makes/make fourteen.6加8等于14.
三. 就近一致原则
谓语动词的单、复数形式决定于最靠近它的词语。
1. 由or, nor, either...or, neither...nor, not only...but also连接的并列结构作主语,随后的动词形式通常按照“就近原则”处理。
You or she is good at English.你或他英语好。
2. 以here, there开头的句子,谓语动词的单复数形式看后面的主语而定,如果主语不止一个,谓语动词于最近的主语保持一致。
① Here is some bread.这有些面包。
②There is a pen and three pencils on the desk.桌子上有一支钢笔和三只铅笔。
1. 如果主语由 “one in/one out of + 复数名词” 构成,在正式语体中,动词用单数。
e.g. One in ten students has passed the examination.十分之一的学生通过了考试。
One out of twelve bottles was left open.十二分之一的瓶子都空了。
2.表示数量的one and a half+ 复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词一般用单数形式。
“3视角”巧解语法填空题
1.看主语人称,确定谓语动词形式
【思路点拨】
1. The design on the back (show) the yellow-eyed penguin, one of the world's rarest penguins。
2. Having traveled from China through Kazakhstan, Russia Belarus, Poland, Germany, Belgium and France for 18
days, the train finally arrived in London. Inside the 68 containers (be) household goods, clothing,
cloth, bags and suitcases。
2.看充当主语的词(短语),确定谓语动词形式
(1)看到主语为动名词短语/to do不定式或从句,要想到:谓语应为第三人称单数形式;
(2)看到“分数(/百分数+of+名词”作主语,要想到谓语的数取决于名词。
【思路点拨】
3. Two-fifths of the land in that district (cover)with trees now, about 80% of which (plant)
in the 1990s.
4.Listening to loud music at rock concerts (cause) hearing loss in some teenagers over the years.
3.看到 there be等结构,要想到用就近一致原则
【思路点拨】
5. Not only Jasper but also his friends (be)planning to go, because they have never been there before.
6.There (be) also many small universities with only a few hundred students.
“3原则”妙解短文改错题
1.通过“语法一致”原则解决主谓一致问题
(1)可数名词单数或不可数名词作主语时谓语动词用单数;可数名词复数作主语时谓语动词用复数。
(2)在定语从句中,关系代词that,who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。
(3)单个的动名词、名词性从句作主语,谓语动词一般用单数。但what引导的主语从句表示复数概念时,谓语动词用复数。
(4)主语后跟有with, together with, as well as等引起的并列主语时,谓语动词的数要与前面的主语保持一致。
(5)复数形式单数意义的词,如news, maths, plastics physics作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
【思路点拨】
1. Compared with online games, many traditional games, like hide-and-seek, benefits kids mentally and physically.
2. Dr Smith, together with his wife and daughters, are going to visit Beijing this summer.
2.通过“意义一致”原则解决主谓一致问题
(1)集体名词作主语时,若被看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式;若被看作是构成集体的一个个成员,谓语动词用复数形式。常见的集体名词有: family, class, team,group, public, committee, government, audience
(2)“分数/百分数/ the majority+of+名词”作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于of后名词的数以及其表示的意义;all,some,half,most, the rest等作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于主语实际表达的意义。
【思路点拨】
3. As a result of the serious flood, two-thirds of the buildings in the area needs repairing.
4.98% of the surface are covered permanently by ice and strong winds driven by gravity blow from the pole to the
coastline.
3.通过“就近一致”原则解决主谓一致问题
由 either..or. neither…nor. not only…but also…等连接的并列主语或者在 there be句型中,谓语动词常与最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。
【思路点拨】
5. There was a large number of people and the train was crowded, but everyone helped those who had lots of bag
-gage and behaved politely.
6. Here come your opportunity: the Student Union will organize a Poetry Writing Contest.

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