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高中英语主谓一致讲义、练习及答案

2020-08-07 20:11| 发布者: admin| 查看: |


一)主谓一致的种类   
1.语法形式上的一致
主语为单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语动词也用复数形式。如:
The number of the students present is 200.
Jane and Mary look alike.
2.意义上一致
1)主语形式虽为单数,但意义为复数,谓语动词用复数。如:The crowd were shouting.
单数形式代表复数内容的词有:people, police, cattle等。
2)主语形式为复数,而意义上却是单数,谓语动词用单数。如:The news was so surprising.
形复意单的单词有news和一些以ics结尾的学科名称,如physics,politics, economics等。
3.就近原则
即谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语。如用连词or,either…or, neither…not, not only…but also等连接的并列主语,如果一个是单数,一个是复数,谓语动词与靠近它的主语一致。如:
Either your students or Mr. Wang knows this.
(二)主谓一致的应用
1.名词作主语
1)某些集体名词,如family, team等作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式,如果就其中一个个成员而言,谓语动词用复数形式。如:
His family is a happy one.
The whole family are watching TV.
这类名词有:audience,class,club,company,crew,enemy,crowd,government,group,party,public,team等。
名词population一词的使用情况类似。“a group(crowd) of +复数名词”等短语之后的谓语动词也同样可用单数或复数,前者强调整体,后者强调各个部分。
2)某些集体名词,如people, police, cattle等,只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。如:
The police are searching for the thief.
3)单、复数同形的名词主语时,谓语动词应根据意义决定单、复数。如:
A sheep is over there.
Some sheep are over there.
4)名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般只指商店、工厂、住宅等,作主语时,动词一般用单数。如:
The doctor’s is across the street.
My uncle’s is not far from here.
常见的省略名词有:the baker’s, the barber’s, the carpenter’s, the Zhang’s等。
表示店铺的名词,一般作集体名词看待,但用作主语时,谓语动词往往用复数。如:
Richardson’s have a lot of goods to sell.
5)当名词词组中心词为表示度量、距离、金额、时间、书名等复数名词时,往往可以根据意义一致的原则,把这些复数名词看作一个整体,谓语用单数形式。如:
Three years has passed since then.
6)不定代词each, every, no所修饰的名词即使以and或逗号连接成多主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:
Each boy and each girl wants to go to the cinema.
7)如果主语有more than one…或many a…构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:
More than one student has read the book.
Many a girl has been there.
但是,“more +复数名词+than one”结构之后,谓语动词一般多用复数形式。如:
More members than one are against your plan.
8)一些有两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式,例如:glasses, clothes, trousers, shoes, compasses, chopsticks, scissors等。但如果主语用“a kind of, a pair of , a series of等加名词”构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。如:
A pair of shoes was on the desk.
9)this kind of book =a book of this kind(这种书),其谓语动词用单数;短语this kind of men =men of this kind =these kind of men(口语)(这一类人),但this kind of men的谓语动词用单数,men of this kind和these kind of men的谓语动词用复数,all kinds of后跟复数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。如:
This kind of men is dangerous.
Men of this kind are dangerous.
10)复数形式的单、复数同形名词作主语时,按意义一致原则,作用单数意义时,谓语用单数,反之,谓语用复数。这类名词有:means(方法),works(工厂),species(种类),Chinese,Japanese等。如:
The (This) glass works was set up in 1980. (这家玻璃厂建于1980年。)
The(These)glass works are near the railway station. (这些玻璃厂在火车站附近。)
当它们前面有a, such a , this, that修饰时,谓语用单数;有all, such, these, those修饰时,谓语用复数,但means, no means, the means等词前没有以上修饰词时,可用作单数,也可用作复数。
11)如果名词词组中心词是all,most, half, rest等词语,所指的复数意义,谓语动词用复数形式;反之,用单数。如:
All of my classmates like music.
All of the water is gone.
12)在主谓倒装的句子中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:
Between the two windows hangs a picture.
2.由连接词连接的名词作主语
1)用and或both…and连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。如:
Plastics and rubber never rot.
Walking and riding are good exercises.
但是,并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时and后面的名词没有冠词。如:
Truth and honesty is the best policy.
The girl’s teacher and friend is a young doctor.
To love and to be loved is great happiness.
Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.
A knife and fork is on the table.
2)当主语后面跟有as well as, as much as, no less than, along with, with, like, rather than, together with, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等引导的词组时,其谓语动词的单、复数而定。如:
The teacher as well as the students was reading in the library.
3)以or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接的名词(代词)作主语时,谓语动词的单复数应根据就近一致的原则。如:
Tom or his brothers are waiting in the room.
Either you or he is to go.
3.代词作主语
1)名词性物主代词作主语时,既可以用作单数,也可以用作复数,这取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。如:
Ours (Our Party) is a great party.
Your shoes are black, and mine(=my shoes) are brown.
2)such, the same起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。如:
Such is our plan. Such are his words.
3)关系代词who, that, which等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如:
Those who want to go please put up your hands.
Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun.
4)疑问代词who, what, which作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、复数。如:
Who lives next door ? It is Xiao Liu.
Who live next door ? It is Zhang and Liu.
What produce(s) heat ?
5)不定代词any, either, neither, none, all some, more等作主语时,有以下两种情况:
单独作主语时,视其在文中的意义,动词用单数或复数形式,例如:
Now all has been changed. All are present.
either, neither单独作主语时,谓语通常用单数。
但后接of时,若of的宾语为不可数名词,动词当然用单数形式,若of的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数,在正式文体中,单数形式的动词更常用。如:
Do(es) any of you know his address ?
None of them has(have)seen the film.
4.分数、量词作主语
1)“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语以及由“a lot of, lots of plenty of, a large quantity of, a heap of, heaps of, half of +名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中of后面的名词的数保持一致,这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词,而短语中前面的量词是修饰语,例如:
Lots of damage was caused by fire.
About three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Three-fifths of the workers here are women.
和这种情况类似的还有“a number of+名词复数”,但是,“the number of +名词”的中心词却是number, 试比较:
A number of students have gone home.
The number of pages in this book is two hundred. 注意:(large)quantities of修饰可数或不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数,例如:
Quantities of food(nuts) were on the table.
短语in quantity, in large quantities意为“大量”;in small quantities意为“少量”。
2)a great deal of , a large amount of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;large amounts of修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数,例如:
A large amount of(A great deal of)damage was done in a very short time.
Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.
3)表示数量的one and a half后,名词要用复数形式,但是其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,例如:
One and a half bananas is left on the table.
4)half of, (a) part of修饰可数名词单数及不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数,修饰可数名词复数时,谓语动词用复数。
5.名词化的形容词作主语
如果主语由“the+形容词(或过去分词)”结构担任时,谓语通常用复数,这类词有:the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the dead, the deaf and dumb, the oppressed, the injured, the wounded, the unemployed等;但也有少数的过去分词与定冠词连用时指个别,则用单数。如:
The blind study in special schools.
The departed was a well-known engineer.
这类形容词或分词如果要表示个体时,就要与名词man, person或表示人的单数连和,如:an old man, a rich person, the(a)wounded soldier
6.从句作主语
1)由what引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数,但所指的具体内容是复数意义时,谓语动词一般用复数形式,例如:
What we need is more time.
What we need are doctors.
2)在“one of+复数名词++who/that/which”引导的从句结构中,关系代词who/that/which的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是one,因此,从句中的动词应该是复数形式。如:
This is one of the most interesting stories that have been told.
但是当one之前有the only等修饰语时,关系代词的先行词是one,而不是靠近它的复数名词,因此从句的动词应是单数形式。如:
She was the only one of the girls who was late.
 
1.Three ______ died in the terrible fire in Luoyang last winter.
A. hundreds people   B. hundred people
C. hundreds peoples   D. hundred peoples
2. Either you or the president _______ the prizes to these gifted winners at the meeting.
A. is handing out   B. are to hand out
C. are handing out   D. is to hand out
3. I, who ______ your close friend, will try my best to help you out of trouble.
A. am   B. is   C. are   D. be
4. The Olympic Games in the year 2008 ______ in Beijing of China, which ______ known to us all.
A. is to hold; is   B. is to be held; was
C. are to hold; is   D. are to be held; is
5. There _____ a lot of rubbish on the floor so I asked Mary to sweep _____ up.
A. were; it      B. are; them
C. was; it      D. is; them
6. Three million tons of coal ______ every year in the city.
A. is exploited    B. are exploited
C. had exploited   D. have exploited
7. Stories of the Long March _______ popular with the young people now.
A. is   B. was   C. are   D. were
8. Mathematics _______ the language of science.
A. are      B. are going to be   
C. is      D. is to be
9. Both rice and wheat _____ grown in our country.
A. is   B. are   C. was   D. were
10. ________ either of your parents come to see you recently?
A. Have   B. Had   C. Has   D. Is
11. What the children in the mountain village need ________ good books.
A. is    B. are   C. have   D. has
12. The whole family _______ TV attentively.
A. are watching   B. is watching
C. is seeing      D. are seeing
13. Nothing but several glasses ________ bought by my father the day before yesterday.
A. was      B. were   
C. have been      D. would be
14. At the bus stop ______ a soldier and two young
people on their way to the village.
A. were   B. was   C. is   D. sits
15. If law and order ______, neither the citizen nor his family is safe.
A. are not preserved   B. is not preserved
C. were preserved   D. have not been preserved
16. There ______ little change in that middle school.
A. have   B. had   C. have been   D. has been
17. What such a sunset is ______ strange to us all.
A. going to be   B. /   C. is   D. that
18. Seventy-five percent of the earths surface ______ with water.
A. is covered   B. is covering   
C. were covered   D. are covered
19. The following ______ some other mental diseases.
A. being   B. are   C. was   D. were
20. Not only you but also I ______ able to help him out.
A. are   B. is   C. am   D. were
21. “ The Kites” ______ us a story of the kites history.
A. have told      B. tells   
C. were told      D. was told
22. You and I _____ twin sisters.
A. were   B. are   C. is   D. am
23. A teacher of English and class teacher _______ us something about volunteer workers.
A. are telling   B. is telling   C. are given   D. were given
24. Thousands of tons of rubbish ________ over a large period of time.
A. rots away      B. rot away   
C. has rotted away   D. are rotted away
25. Mayor as well as volunteer workers _______ the newly-built stadium.
A. is cleaning   B. are cleaning   
C. were cleaning   D. have cleaned
26. Many a student ______ something about Abraham Lincoln.
A. have known   B. knows
C. is known      D. are known
27. The defence works ______ built long ago to keep the enemy away.
A. were   B. has been
C. had been   D. was
28. “ Have you all studied the passage‘Using the Mind against Disease’?”
“______ .”
A. Nobody of us has   B. Nobody of us have
C. None of us has   D. None of us did
29. A group of Italian soldiers ______ quickly towards their position.
A. were advancing   B. were advanced
C. was advancing   D. advancing
30. Everyone, men and women, old and young ______ sports and games.
A. is enjoy      B. were enjoying
C. enjoys      D. enjoy
 
1.解析:选B. hundred一词前面有具体数词修饰时不加-s
2. 解析:选D. 当either …or 连接两个并列主语时,句子的谓语动词在人称和数上和后一个主语保持一致。“be+不定式”表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作。
3. 解析:选A. who 为引导定语从句的关系代词,其先行词是I , 所以谓语动词要用am.
4. 解析:选D. 主语the Olympic Games 意为:奥运会,谓语动词要用非第三人称单数形式;后半部分为which引导的非限制情定语从句,其谓语动词要用单数形式。
5.解析:选C. there be句型中be动词的单复数取决于其后的主语,a lot of rubbish(不可数名词),因此后面谓语动词要用单数。
6. 解析:选A. 主语为coal, 是不可数名词。根据题意,此处要用被动语态。
7. 解析:选A. 主语Stories of the Long March 是书名,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。
8. 解析:选C. 此处mathematics 为学科名词,作主语时谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。
9. 解析:选B. both----and---连接两个并列主语时,句子的谓语动词要用非第三人称单数形式。
10.解析:选C. either 是主语部分的中心词,助动词要与either要数上保持一致。
11.解析:选B. what 引导的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词要根据后面的名词的数来决定,此处要用非第三人称单数形式。
12.解析:选A. 此处指:家里的各个成员,所以谓语动词要用非第三人称单数形式。
13. 解析:选A. 此处nothing句子的主语,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。
14. 解析:选A. 此句为倒装句,句子的主语是a soldier and two young people.
15. 解析:选B. 此处主语law and order 指的是同一个概念,所以谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式.
16. 解析:选D. 此处there be结构中的主语little change是不可数名词。
17. 解析:选C. 本句是主语从句,缺谓语,所以要用第三人称单数形式。
18. 解析:选A. 本句缺谓语,主语percent后面是不可数名词,所以要用第三人称单数形式。
19. 解析:选B. 本句的表语 是复数形式,所以谓语动词要用非第三人称单数形。
20.解析:选C. 根据 就近一致性原则,谓语用am.
21. 解析:选B. 本句的主语是书名,从整体考虑,谓语是第三人称单数形。
22. 解析:选B. 用and连接两个并列主语时,谓语用非第三人称单数形.
23.解析:选B. 本句主语是同一个人,谓语用第三人称单数形式。
24.解析:选B. 本句主语是tons, 是复数形式,rot是不及物动词,不可用被动形式。
25.解析:选A. 本句主语Mayor是单数形式,谓语用第三人称单数形式。
26. 解析:选B.主语many a student 意思是复数,形式是单数。谓语动词要用第三人称单数形。
27. 解析:选D. 主语works 是集合名词,当成整体考虑,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形。 Long ago 表示过去.
28. 解析:选C. 因为问句是完成时态,答句要用完成时态回答,另外主语不可用nobody of us.
29.解析:选A. 主语a group of 在本句中表示具体每个人。
30. 解析:选C. 本句主语是不定代词everyone,为单数主语,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形。
 

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