? 2021年高考英语-定语从句超级汇总_秒词邦官网

2021年高考英语-定语从句超级汇总

2020-08-07 20:11| 发布者: admin| 查看: |

定语从句精品讲义
一、基本概念
1.定语从句:在一个主从复合句中修饰某一个名词、代词或修饰整个主句的从句叫定语从句。换句话说,定语从句就是用来作定语的句子。
2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。先行词前一般用the ,但在指“一个”概念时可用 a , an 。
3.关系代词 / 关系副词:连接先行词和定语从句的词叫关系词,根据其在从句中作用分为关系代词或关系副词。若先行词在从句中作主语、宾语和定语等,应用关系代词引导定语从句;若先行词在从句中作时间状语、地点状语和原因状语等,应用关系副词引导定语从句。
4.定语从句的位置:一般紧跟在先行词后面。但有时因句子结构的需要,定语从句和先行词被某些成分隔开。
5.引导定语从句的关系词分为二类:
关系代词:that, which ,who, whom ,whose , as
关系副词:when, where, why
二、基本用法
1.关系代词的基本用法(见下表):
 
 
 
 
 
 
关系代词 从句中作用 例句
who 指人 作主语
宾语(可省略)
1.This is the girl who / that teaches us English.   ( who / that指人,修饰先行词the girl,在从句中作主语)
2.He is the boy whom / who / that I met yesterday.   ( whom / who / that 指人,修饰先行词the boy在从句中作宾语,whom / who / that 可省略。)
whom 指人 作宾语(可省略)
whose 指人、物 作定语 3.This is the girl whose father is an engineer. (whose作定语,用来修饰人)
4.I live in a room whose windows face the south. (whose作定语,用来修饰物,whose windows = the windows of which或of which the windows)
which 指物 作主语
宾语(可省略)
6.This is the book which / that I lost yesterday. (which/ that指物,作宾语,可省略)
7.The clock is an instrument which / that can tell time. (which / that 指物,作主语)
8.Do you know the woman that / who lives next door? (that / who 指人,作主语)
that 指人、物 作主语
宾语(可省略)
as 指物 作主语、宾语
可修饰整个主句
9.This is the same pen as I bought yesterday. (as指物,在从句中作宾语)
10.As we all know, Taiwan is part of China. (as指代整个主句的内容)
 
2.使用关系代词时应注意的几个问题:
a. 在以下几种情况下只使用that不用which。
1.先行词是不定代词时,如: all, anything, everything, nothing, something, little, few, much。
    1.I told him all (that) I know.
    2.He gave her everything (that) he had.
2.先行词被all, every, any, the very, the only, the just等修饰时。
    1.I have read all the books (that) you gave me.
    2.You can take any book (that) you like.
3.先行词被序数词和形容词的最高级修饰时。
    1. This is the best book (that) I have ever read.
    2. The second place (that) I want to visit is Shanghai.
4.先行词既有人又有物时。
    1.We talked about the persons and things (that) we remember in the school.
    2.The people and the animals that were killed in the earthquake have all been found.
5.在Who, Which引起的疑问句中。
    1. Who is the boy that helped you?
2. Which is the book (that) you bought yesterday?
6. 若有两个定语从句,一个用which引导,另一个须用that引导。
He bought a book which could give him knowledge and that could help to kill the time.
7. 当先行词在定语从句中作表语时。
Mary is no longer the girl (that) she used to be.
 
b.在以下几种情况下只使用which 不用that。
1. 引导非限制性定语从句时。
I have lost my pen, which I like very much. (which 作宾语,指代主句中的pen)
New concept English is intended for foreign students, which is known to all of us.
(which作主语,指代整个主句)
2. 若有两个定语从句,其中一个关系代词是which,另一个须用that。
      The book (that) he bought yesterday was the one (which) he liked best.
3. 先行词在句中作介词宾语且介词前置时。
      This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived.
c.当先行词为指人的关系代词时,引导词只用who 不用that。
1. 先行词为all, anyone, one / ones, those, people 时,须用who。
    1. Anyone who knows how to do it can do it now.
    2. Those who want to see the film please put up your hands.
   3. He, who does not reach the Great Wall, is not a true man.
2. 在非限制性定语从句中,须用who。
Tom’s father, who is over sixty, still works hard.
3. 在被分隔的定语从句中,须用who。
A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you German.
4. 在以there be开头的句子中,多用who。
There is a stranger who wants to see our headmaster.
5. 若有两个定语从句,其中一个关系代词是that,另一个须用who。
The student who was praised at the meeting is the monitor that studies very hard.
d. as和which的使用场合。
  as which
引导的非限制性定语从句 可放在句首或句中 不能放在句首
修饰“积极的”方面 修饰“消极的”方面
在句中含义 意为“正如”、“就像” 无此意
常用的搭配 常和such,so,the same等连用 无此用法
“~ + be + 过去分词”结构 “be”可以省略 “be”不能省略
表示状态的动词 as is said above,
as already mentioned above
as is often the case
as it is
as is known to all
无此用法
都能引导非限制性定语从句,指代整个句子的内容
如: As we all know, he studies very hard.
比较:He studies very hard, as / which we all know.
I’ve never seen such a clever man as he is.
He has to work on Sundays, which he doesn’t like.
He was late, which made the teacher angry.
The bridge is really wonderful, as (is) shown in the picture.
The experiment is very important, as indeed it is.
e. the same…as …和the same… that…的不同。
This is the same book as I lent you yesterday.
这本书和我昨天借给你的相似。(相似物)
This is the same book that I lent you yesterday.
这正是我昨天借给你的那本书。(同一物)
 
【小试牛刀】
I.用关系代词who, whom, that, which, whose, as填空。
1. The earthquake ________shook the city in 1906 was the biggest in American history.
2. We don’t know the number of people __________lost their homes in the earthquake.
3. The house ___________they built in 1937 is still in very good condition.
4. The house __________is built on sand may fall down in an earthquake.
5. The boy ___________ father is a teacher is very clever.
6. A clock is a machine ____________tells people the time.
7. Our village is no longer the one __________ it used to be.
8.The house __________ he is looking for is very expensive.
9. Do you know the man __________ houses are all broken?
10. ________ is known to all, the moon travels round the earth once very month.
【答案】1. that/ which   2. who/ that      3. that/ which / 不填    4. that/ which  5. whose
6. that / which   7. that / 不填    8. that / which / 不填   9. whose      10. as
 
II.把下面各组句子合并成含有定语从句的复合句。
1. The girl is not here.             She is going to sing a song.
 
2. The school is a big one.           The school stands near the river.
 
3. The girl works very hard.           Her father is a doctor.
 
4. My uncle bought the bike last week.     The bike has been stolen.
 
5.The pen is very old.              I lent it to you this morning.
 
III.翻译下面句子
1.刚才作演讲的那个教授已经走了。
____________________________________________________________
2.你认识那个母亲是老师的女孩吗?
______________________________________________________________
3.鸟是一种能飞的动物。
______________________________________________________________
4.我上周买的那支钢笔很便宜。
______________________________________________________________
5.门朝北开的那间房子已经被卖了。
______________________________________________________________
【答案】   
1. The professor that / who made the speech just now has left.
2. Do you know the girl whose mother is a teacher?
3. A bird is an animal which / that can fly.
4. The pen (that / which) I bought last week is very cheap.
5. The room whose door faces north has been sold.
3.关系副词的基本用法
关系副词 从句中作用 例句
when 作时间状语 I remember the days when I stayed there.
where 作地点状语 This is the room where I lost my pen.
why 作原因状语 This is the reason why he was late.
思考:同样是表示地点的先行词,为何有时候用关系代词that, which,有时候用关系副词where?同样是表示时间的先行词,为何有时候用关系代词that, which,有时候用关系副词when?请对比以下几组句子:
I have found the factory that / which he visited last week.
I have found the factory where he stayed last week.
 
The days that / which I spent there are unforgettable.
The days when I stayed there are unforgettable.
 
The reason that / which he told me for his being late is that he got up late.
The reason why he was late is that he got up late.
说明: 当引导词在定语从句中作主语,宾语或表语时,尽管先行词是时间名词,地点名词或表示原因的名词, 我们仍然使用关系代词that, which。这主要根据从句中的谓语动词是及物的还是不及物的。
 
注意:
1.当用作关系副词,若修饰表示的名词time,day,moment,way时,用that代替when / why等。
如:It happened on the day that/ when I was born.
   I don’t like the way (that / in which) you speak to your mother.
 
4.由介词+which / whom 引导的定语从句
介词一般由定语从句的动词而定。
He is the boy whom / who / that we are talking about
= He is the boy about whom we are talking.
The pen which /that I wrote the article with is gone.
= The pen with which I wrote the article.
几种特殊的情况:
a. 由when, where, why 引导的定语从句常常可以替换成“介词 + which / whom的形式”:
when = in / on / at which,  where = in / on / at +which,   why = for which
b. whose+ n.= the+ n. + of whom / which = of whom / which + the + n.  如:
whose father = the father of whom = of whom the father
whose window = the window of which =of which the window
c. 由介词短语+whom/which 引起的定语从句
     This is our classroom, in front of which there is a garden.
The building at the back of which is a lake is our chemistry lab building.
He lives on a mountain on top of which there is a temple.
d. 数词/代词+介词+which/ whom 引起的定语从句
I have some books, one of which is in English.
  She has many friends, all of whom are in the same class.
  (比较:She has many friends. All of them are in the same class.)
但有些短语动词中的介词不能提前,因为其短语拆开后完全改变了原来的意思。
    This is the book that / which I’m looking for
    There are many patients that the nurses look after.
 
5.what在其引导的从句中作定语
What在它所引导的主语从句、宾语从句或表语从句中作主语、宾语或表语外,还可作定语。如:
Don’t worry. I will give you what help I can.  别担心,我会近我所能帮你。
= any help that 或as much help as
What 在从句中作定语时,还可于few,little连用修饰名词,表示“尽管不多,但已经全部”。如:
I will lend you what few books I can spare. 我愿把为数不多的书全部借给你。
        = all the few books that
    We contributed what little money we had towards the flood-stricken area.
= all the little money that
 
【小试牛刀】
IV.用关系副词when, where, why填空
1. Do you still remember the place _______ you were born?
2. I don’t remember the date _______ my father were born.
3. Yesterday we went to visit the house ________ the great writer used to live.
4. Do you know the reason ________ he killed himself?
5. He was born in the year __________ the Second World War broke out.
6. He always wants to go to his hometown and visited the place _________ he grew up.
7. Kunming is a beautiful city ________ flowers are seen all the year round.
8. The children today are lucky as they are living in a time ________ our country is open to the outside world.
9. Please tell me the reason ________ he is angry.
10. This kind of programme will be well received in the countries _________ many Chinese are living.
【答案】1. where    2. when  3. where  4. why   5. when   6. where    7. where
8. when   9. why   10. where
 
V.翻译下面句子
1.我已经找到了我朋友居住的那间房子了。
 
2.你记得你妈妈出生的日期吗?
 
3.请告诉我你买到那块手表的地方。
 
4.我不喜欢他的原因是他太笨了。
 
5.上海是个大城市,在那里你可以见到许多外国人。
 
【答案】1. I have found the room where my friends once lived.
2. Do you still remember the date when your mother was born?
3. Please tell me the place where you bought the watch.
4. The reason why I don’t like him is that he is too stupid.
5. Shanghai is a big city, where you can see many foreigners.
 
VI.用恰当的关系词填空
1. The first lesson ___________ the old professor taught was not easily forgotten.
2. Mr. White told his wife the persons and things __________ he saw in China.
3. Who is the girl ___________ shook hands with our headmaster?
4. The report __________ they are listening to is very important.
5. Do you know the reason __________ he didn’t come to school last week?
6. Did you understand the last report __________ was made by the foreigner?
7. Would you please lend me the same book ___________ he has borrowed?
8. Please tell us the days __________ we are going to have our exams.
9. The factory __________ makes bikes was built in 1930.
10. He told me everything __________ he had seen in the accident.
11. The camp was full of people __________ homes had been destroyed.
12. Tom is the student with ____________ I want to have a talk.
13. Do you remember the village __________ we worked last summer?
14. Do you remember the village __________ we visited last summer?
15. Do you remember the days _________ we spent together last summer?
【答案】 1. (that)    2. (that)   3. that      4. (that / which)      5. why      6. which / that
7. as      8. when   9. which / that   10. (that)         11. whose      12. whom
13. where   14. (that / which)         15. (that / which)   
 
【强化练习】
I. 不定项选择
1. The old lady _____is his grandmother.
     A. you talked     B. that you talked about   C. you talked to her     D. you talked to
2. A man ______Jack went to Qingdao for a holiday yesterday.
     A. who’s name is     B. who his name is       C. whose name is       D. his name is
3. He lives in a room ______door is broken.
     A. whose           B. which            C. its               D. that
4. We visited the factory _____makes toys for children.
     A. where           B. which            C. in which          D. that
5. The film _____last night was wonderful.
A. which we saw     B. that we saw          C. which was shown   D. that was shown
6. I’ll never forget the place _____I visited ten years ago.
    A. where          B. that               C. in which           D. what
7. Sep. 18, 1995 is a day _____we’ll never forget.
A. when           B. in which           C. that               D. for which
8. The girl ____ you met just now is very interesting.
A. which          B. that             C. whom             D. who
9. The factory ____you visited yesterday was built in 1930.
A. who            B. which             C. that              D. whom
10. There is a mountain ____top is always covered with snow.
A. of which       B. whose             C. it’s               D. its
11. The car ran over a boy and a dog _____were just crossing the street.
A. who             B. whom             C. that              D. which
12. The lessons _____were not easily forgotten.
A. which he taught   B. which were taught   C. that were taught      D. that he taught
13. The student _____is a three-good student.
A. whose parents died               B. who you met
C. whom you met                  D. who we were talking about
14. I want to go and thank the woman ______helped me.
A. who            B. that                C. which            D. whose son
15. The man ____was a friend of mine.
     A. that you just talked to                B. whom you just talked to him  
C. who you just talked to him            D. which you just talked to him
【答案】1. BD   2. C   3. A    4. BD      5. ABCD    6. B    7. C    8. BCD    9. BC   10. B   11. C   12. ABCD    13. ABCD    14. ABD    15. A
 
 
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