【秒词邦】最新高考英语语法超级表及经典习题 第十二讲:名词和主谓一致

2020-06-15 21:31| 发布者: admin| 查看: |




专有名词 普通名词
国名地名人名,团体机构名称 可数名词 不可数名词
个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 物质名词

特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换

例 句 意 义 名词性质
①She held some flowers in her hand.
②The trees are now in flower
花儿 个体名词
开花 抽象名词
①Youth is beautiful.
②He is a youth of twenty
青春 抽象名词
年轻人 个体名词
①They have achieved remarkable success in their work.
②—How about the Christmas evening party?
—I should say it was a success.
成功 抽象名词
成功的事 个体名词


例 句 意 义 名词性质
①Iron is a kind of metal.
②Please lend me your iron.
熨斗 个体名词
①He broke a piece of glass.
②He broke a glass.
玻璃 物质名词
玻璃杯 个体名词
①I bought a chicken this morning
②Please help yourself to some chicken
小鸡 个体名词
鸡肉 物质名词


具有动作意义的抽象名词加用与某些动词(如:have等)连用,表示某一次短暂的动作 ①—I’d like______information about the management of your hotel,please.
—Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be helpful
A.some,a B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a
②They sent us word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词)
A.a B.an C./ D.the
③Could we have word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词)
A.a B.an C./ D.the
类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look
take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发)
/make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try
表示知识和时间的抽象名词转换为普通名词时可以用来表示其中的一部分 ①Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a must in____international trade today.
A.a, / B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the
a knowledge of truth
give a fuller knowledge of China
have a knowledge of shorthand
②If there were no examination, we should have______at school.
A.the happiest time B.a more happier time
C.much happiest time D.a much happier time
③is money.
A.The time B.A time C.Time D.Times
①Oh, John. _____you gave me!
A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise
C.What a pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise
②She looked up when I shouted.
A.in a surprise B.in the surprise C.in surprise D.in some surprise
其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise
③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it.
A.so unusual B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an unusual



规 则 例 词
1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice
2 单复数相同 sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species
3 只有复数形式 ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents
4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 people, police, cattle, staff
5 部分集体名词既可以作单数(整体)也可以作复数(成员) audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party
6 复数形式表示特别含义 customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟)
7 表示“某国人” 加-s Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans
单复数同形 Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese
以-man或-woman结尾的改为-men,-women Englishmen, Frenchwomen
8 合成名词 将主体名词变为复数 sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends
无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数 grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches
将两部分变为复数 women singers, men servants


规则 情 况 举 例

His father is working on the farm.
To study English well is not easy.
Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.
What he said is very important for us all.
what I bought were three English books.
What I say and do is (are) helpful for you.
时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由and 连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every 或more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。either, neither, each, every 或no+单数名词和由some, any no, every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。.
Lucy and Lily are twins
The writer and artist has come.
Every student and every teach is in the classroom.
Many a boy and many a girl likes it.
No boy and no girl likes it.
Each of us has a new book.
Somebody is speaking in class.
若none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数。若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。None of the sugar was left.
在定语从句里,关系代词that, who, which 等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 Those who want to go please write their names on the blackboard.
在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致 It is I who am going to the cinema tonight.
It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.
如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数形式; 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数形式 The police are looking for the lost child.
His family has moved to the south .(他的一家)
His family are watching TV.(他的家人)
Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生)
由a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+名词构成的短语以及由分数或百分数+名词构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。 There are a lot of people in the classroom.
Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea.
此外,还有a number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复数),但the number of +复数名词的数就得依number 而定(用单数)。
A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick apples.
在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致 On the wall are many pictures.

What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数,也可是复数, 主要靠意思来决定。 Which is your bag?
Are any of you good at English?
表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体。 Thirty minutes is enough for the work..
Twenty pounds is too dear.
Forty kilos of water are used every day.
若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。 The United States is smaller than China.
“The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book.
表数量的短语“one and a half”后面接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 One and a half apples is left on the table.
一些学科名词是以-ics结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works 等。都属于形式上是复数的名词, 实际意义为单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 The paper works was built in 1990.
I don’t think physics is easy to study.
trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a(the) pair of 等量词修饰时(clothes被a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数。 My glasses are broken.
The pair of shoes under the bed is his.
“定冠词the+形容词或分词”,表示某一类人动词用复数;若表示某一类东西时,动词用单数。 The old are taken good care of there.
The beautiful gives pleasure to all.


当两个主语由either or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一致,即就近一致。 Either the teacher or the students are our friends.
Neither he nor they are wholly right.
Neither they nor he is wholly right.
there be 句型中be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and 连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致,即就近一致。 There are two chairs and a desk in the room.
There is a desk and two chairs in the room.
主语后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, besides, along with, including, in addition to 等引起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语一致,即就远一致。 Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China.
Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground.
The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak Japanese.



1. Always remember to put such dangerous things as knives out of children’s_________.

A. touch     B. sight    C. reach    D. distance

2. What’s the_____, in your opinion, of helping him if he doesn’t make an effort to help himself?

A. sympathy     B. theme     C. object   D. point

3. “Tommy, run! Be quick! The house is on fire!” the mother shouted, with ______ clearly in her voices.

A. anger    B. rudeness     C. regret    D. panic

4. Giving up my job to go back to full time education was a big________, but now I know it was the best decision I ever made.

A. project   B. commitment    C. competition   D. ambition

5. Teachers have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional ___.

A. consequence     B. independence

C. competence     D. intelligence

6. Anyway, I can't cheat him-it's against all my________.

A. emotions     B. principles   C. regulations D. opinions

7. There’s a _____ in our office that when it’s somebody’s birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share.

A. tradition     B. balance   C. concern D. relationship

8. I haven’t seen Sara since she was a little girl, and she has changed beyond_______

A. hearing    B strength    C. recognition   D. measure

9. Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving license reached 200,000, a (n) ______ of 40,000 per year.

A. average    B. number   C. amount   D. quantity

10. Those who suffer from headache will find they get ______ from this medicine.

A. relief  B. safety    C. defense   D. shelter

11. James took the magazines off the little table to make _________for the television.

A. room     B. area    C. field  D. position

12. The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients, so he has a very good_____.

A. expectation     B. reputation     C. contribution   D. civilization

13. My morning _____includes jogging in the park and reading newspapers over breakfast.

A. drill B. action C. regulation D. routine

14. I can’t say which wine is best—it’s a(n) _______ of personal taste.

A. affair B. event C. matter D. variety

15. The practice of hanging clothes across the street is a common _____in many parts of the city.

A. look B. sign C. sight D. appearance

16.—You are always full of _______.Can you tell me the secret?

—Taking plenty of exercise every day.

A. power B. strength C. force D. energy

17. Despite such a big difference in ___ towards what one eats, there is no doubt that people in the west regard the Chinese food as something special.

A. point B. idea C. attitude D. sight

18. He and his wife are of the same ______; they both want their son to go to college.

A. soul B. spirit C. heart D. mind

19. One thousand dollars a month is not a fortune but would help cover my living _______.

A. bills B. expenses C. prices D. charges

20. Of the seven days in a week, Saturday is said to be the most popular _______ for a wedding in some countries.

A. way B. situation C. event D. choice

21. The police are offering a __________to anyone who can give information about the lost key.

A. price B. prize C. reward D. money

22. You’ll find this map of great _____________in helping you to get round London.

A. price B. cost C. value D. usefulness

23. I shouldn’t have accepted the man’s present, but I found it difficult to turn down his ___.

A. offer B. request C. suggestion D. plan


Long long ago, there was a small village. This village had a 1 tradition. At the beginning of every year, any boy who had reached the age of majority (成年) was given land and money to build a home. The boy had to2 his home before winter. If his home failed to endure the cold weather in winter, the villagers could not3 him in any way.

One _4_, Paul and Marc reached their majority. They 5 their land and money and decided to search nearby villages for ideas on building their homes. In each village, they found the nicest6and talked to the owners. Each owner gladly offered 7 .

After Marc saw several homes, he8 the best ideas and went back to his own land. Paul, _9_, continued collecting more ideas. Soon he had so many great ideas that he began to 10 some of them. But he always believed he could find even better ideas in the next village.

Marc began building his home. He had several false starts, 11 his home gradually rose from his land. By fall, Marc had finished his home. It wasn't perfect,but it was strong and he could 12it later. Paul enjoyed all the beautiful homes and13 with home owners. The first snow came and Paul, realizing he was running out of time,14 back to his land. He built the best home he could in the time he had, but it was 15 . The first winter storm destroyed his home and he froze to 16 . The villagers mourned for him.

Marc 17 the winter. Each year, Marc searched for other good ideas he could use to make his own home look better. He became a leader in the village, 18 a family, and lived a happy, content life.

We all build and improve our own mental homes. It’s 19 and fun for us to search for ideas from other mental home owners, but we only improve our own mental home if we actually20 the best ideas.

1. A. strange B. hopeful C. literary D. cultural

2. A. find B. make C. complete D. buy

3. A. help B. encourage C. scold D. persuade

4. A. winter B. summer C. autumn D. spring

5. A. exchanged B. received C. recognized D. advice

6. A. girls B. jobs C. houses D. presents

7. A. rooms B. drinks C. attention D. advice

8. A. expected B. gathered C. created D. understood

9. A. similarly B. finally C. however D. furthermore

10. A. forget B. believe C. replace D. doubt

11. A. because B. although C. but D. so

12. A. repair B. rebuild C. sell D. improve

13. A. conversations B. achievements C. struggles D. arguments

14. A. drove B. rushed C. flew D. moved

15. A. weak B. funny C. small D. amazing

16. A. blindness B. death C. sadness D. illness

17. A. experienced B. loved C. survived D. spent

18. A. brought B. earned C. contacted D. raised

19. A. slow B. easy C. dangerous D. special

20. A. realize B. bring C. collect D. apply


SAN FRANCISCO — In the western U.S., Hawaii and elsewhere across the globe, moon watchers were treated Saturday to a rare celestial phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse (月全食).

For about 50 minutes starting at 6:06 a.m. PST, the moon was completely blocked by the Earth's shadow.

With only some indirect sunlight able to reach it after passing through the Earth's atmosphere, the moon took on a reddish glow. Since the atmosphere scatters blue light, only red light strikes the moon, giving it a dark red color.

Dally Sam, who runs a public relations firm in Hawaii, said it had been cloudy and rainy, but the weather cleared just in time for the eclipse.

Around 3 a.m., he awoke, as he usually does, and remembered to step outside the house in time to catch the eclipse about a half hour later. No one else in the neighborhood was up.

"It was turning that dark red color," Sayre, 47, said, "I’d better grab a camera. To be able to see it just right outside our house was really cool."

At the local observatory in Los Angeles, some 300 people, many clutching coffee cups in the cold morning air, sat with blankets and chairs on the observatory's great lawn.

“It's really a celestial festival out here,” John Peter, 39, told the Los Angeles Times as he set up his camera.

Lying on a slope north of downtown near the Hollywood sign, the place offers clear views of the sky. Observatory officials alerted the crowd when the eclipse began and spontaneous applause erupted when the celestial event ended.

A total lunar eclipse occurs when the moon goes through the long shadow cast by the Earth and is blocked from the sunlight that brightens it.

The last total lunar eclipse was on June 15 although that was not visible from the U.S. The next one is on April 15, 2014, and will be seen in the U.S.

1. What do we know about the lunar eclipse from the passage?

A. The total lunar eclipse began at about 3:30 a.m.

B. The total lunar eclipse ended at about 6:56 a.m. m]

C. The lunar eclipse ended at about 6:56 in the evening.

D. The lunar eclipse began at about 6:06 in the evening.

2. When a total lunar eclipse occurs, ________.

A. the moon looks blue

B. the light will hurt our eyes

C. nothing of the moon can be seen except some dark red light around its place

D. another planet comes between the earth and the moon

3. We can infer from paragraph 5 that at 3:30 a.m. Dally Sam ______.

A. found it was still raining heavily

B. saw a total lunar eclipse

C. went out walking as he usually does

D. still had to wait for a long time to see a total lunar eclipse

4. From the last but one paragraph, the following are true EXCEPT _______.

A. a total lunar eclipse occurs when the moon is blocked by the sun

B. the source of moonlight is from the sun

C. the earth comes between the moon and the sun

D. with the sunlight, the earth casts its shadow over the moon

5. What is the main purpose of the passage?

A. To inform us of the next total lunar eclipse.

B. To tell us about a rare celestial event.

C. To alert us of the natural disaster.

D. To draw people’s attention to the news.


最近,你班同学展开了一场讨论,主题是:Wealth & Health。请你根据下表提供的信息,写一篇100词左右的文章,介绍一下你们讨论的情况。

一些人认为财富更重要 1. 没有钱万万不行
2. 想办法多挣钱 
一些人认为健康更重要 1. 健康是本钱
2. 要爱惜身体
个人看法 更看重健康。身体不好,钱再多也无济于事。




1. Luckily I had my money in my pocket, but the only clothes I had was those I had on.

2. Kitia, like many other Russian girls, are nice and lively.

3. In early January this year, the rate of UFO reports were steady, around three per week.

4. She said that she and my schoolmate all wished me success.

5. …but after class we become stranger at once.

6. The second man pointed his glass and asked if the angel could cure his poor eyesight.

7. I had a lot of wonderful experience, but I also had a bad one.


1. We live day by day, but in the great things, the time of days and weeks ______ so small that a day is unimportant.

A. is      B. are     C. has been    D. have been

2. Professor James will give us a lecture on the Western culture, but when and where ____yet.

A. hasn’t been decided     B. haven’t decided

C. isn’t being decided     D. aren’t decided

3. The company had about 20 notebook computers but only one-third ________ used regularly. Now we have 60 working all day long.

A. is    B. are    C. was    D. were

4. Most of what has been said about the Smiths________also true of the Johnson’s.

A. are    B. is    C. being     D. to be

5. A poet and artist ________coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting     tomorrow afternoon.

A. is     B. are     C. was     D. were

6. The father as well as his three children ____ skating on the frozen river every Sunday    afternoon in winter.

A. is going B. go    C. goes   D. are going

7. As you can see, the number of cars on roads _______ rising these days.

A. are keeping B. keep C. keeps   D. were keeping

8. Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside, ____ in the clothing industry.

A. is working B. works  C. work   D. worked

9. The country life he was used to ______ greatly since 1992.

A. change   B. has changed C. changing  D. have changed

10. No one in the department but Tom and I ____ that the director is going to resign.

A. knows B. know   C. have known   D. am to know

11. All the employees except the manager ______to work online at home.

A. encourages B. encourage C. is encouraged  D. are encouraged

12. She has set a new record, that is, the sales of her latest book ___ 50 million.

A. have reached B. has reached C. are reaching   D. had reached

13. I told him what I was surprised _____ his attitude towards his study.

A. is    B. was    C. at is     D. at was

14. —How are the team playing?

—They’re playing well, but one of them _______ hurt.

A. got   B. gets    C. are   D. were

15. He is the only one of the students who _______a winner of scholarship for three years.

A. is    B. are   C. have been  D. has been

16. As a result of destroying the forest, a large ____ of desert ____ covered the land.

A. number, has  B. quantity, has C. number, have D. quantity, have

17. Every possible means ___ to prevent the air pollution, but the sky is still not clear.

A. is used   B. are used  C. has been used D. have been used

18. All the preparations for the task ______, and we are ready to start.

A. completed       B. complete

C. had been completed    D. have been completed

19. _____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass.

A. Two fifth, is  B. Two fifth, are C. Two fifths, is D. Two fifths, are


Last Tuesday was rainy. Still, I drove to visit my daughter Carolyn and my grandchildren as I had promised. When I finally walked into Carolyn’s house and 1 them, she said, “Mom, you must go to see the narcissi(水仙花)before they are 2 . ”

“3 the narcissi, Carolyn! The road is 4 to drive on in the rain, and there is nothing in the world except you and these children that I want to 5 in such a bad weather!”

My daughter smiled 6 and said, “Trust me, Mom. You will never 7 yourself if you miss this experience. ”

After driving about twenty minutes, we saw a small church. On the far side of the church, I saw a sign 8 , “Narcissus Garden”.

We got out of the car, and I followed Carolyn down the path. Then, as we turned a corner, I looked up and was 9 . Before me lay the most amazing 10 . It looked as though someone had a great vat of gold and poured it over the mountain and its surrounding slopes. The flowers were 11 in swirling(漩涡状的) patterns, with various colors. Each different colored variety was planted in large 12 so that it swirled and flowed like its own river with its own unique color. “But who 13 this?” I asked Carolyn. “It’s just one woman,” Carolyn answered. She 14 a well-kept small house. We walked up to it. In the yard, we saw a poster. “Answers to the Questions I Know You Are Asking” was the 15 . The first answer was a 16 one. “50, 000 bulbs(球茎)”, it read. The second was, “One at a time, by one woman. Two hands, two feet, and one brain. ”The third was, “17 in 1966” .

This unknown woman had created something of indescribable18 . Learn to move towards our goals one step at a time, learn to 19 what we are doing, and learn to use the time well. By doing so, we can 20 the world.

1. A. informed B. taught C. greeted D. invited

2. A. over B. lost C. bent D. broken

3. A. Sell B. Leave C. Water D. Forget

4. A. dangerous B. hard C. clean D. wide

5. A. see B. defeat C. instruct D. welcome

6. A. calmly B. proudly C. easily D. nervously

7. A. protect B. permit C. hate D. forgive

8. A. talking B. speaking C. saying D. knowing

9. A. inspired B. satisfied C. depressed D. shocked

10. A. progress B. sight C. place D. poster

11. A. planted B. cut C. stored D. pined

12. A. lines B. rows C. groups D. teams

13. A. won B. enjoyed C. discovered D. made

14. A. searched for B. pointed to C. looked at D. thought of

15. A. answer B. text C. headline D. meaning

16. A. beautiful B. lively C. wide D. simple

17. A. Appeared B. Began C. Paused D. Finished

18. A. beauty B. price C. concern D. value

19. A. describe B. divide C. love D. correct

20. A. explore B. change C. watch D. know


I never liked rings. I did not wear a high school ring, I did not wear a college ring, and I did not want to wear a wedding ring. This was not because I did not want people to know that I was married, but because I just did not feel comfortable with a ring on my finger.

After graduating from college I finally was about to “pop the question” to my high school sweetheart, Sharon Gail Weingarton, who was at my side continually after I was almost fatally injured during a robbery.

Sharon was the best—pretty, kind, sweet, and smart. However, what would she say when I proposed and said that I did not want to wear a wedding ring? I practiced what I was going to say to her. I thought long and hard. I finally decided that there was no answer to my dilemma. I would simply tell her, and then wait five minutes for the explosion.

So that night I proposed, and afterwards I told Sharon that I was not going to wear a ring. I simply said, “I just don’t like rings. I didn’t wear a high school ring...” I expected Sharon to become enraged:“WHAT DO YOU MEAN YOU’RE NOT GOING TO WEAR A WEDDING RING?”

However, instead, I merely heard silence. After what in my mind seemed like an eternity, Sharon calmly remarked, “Fine. If you don’t want to wear a wedding ring. I won’t change my name. I will not call myself Sharon Segal. ”

On our fifteenth anniversary, I remembered the first lesson of marriage that was taught to me by my wife Sharon Gaff Segal as I looked down upon the ring on my ring finger.

1. Why didn’t the author want to wear a wedding ring?

A. Because he was still a student and was afraid of being punished by the school.

B. Because his marriage wasn't permitted by his parents.

C. Because he felt uncomfortable with a ring on his finger.

D. Because he wanted to keep his marriage a secret.

2. The underlined word“enraged”in the fourth paragraph probably means .

A. angry B. calm C. satisfied D. caring

3. What can we learn from the fifth paragraph?

A. Sharon agreed to marry the author though he didn’t want to wear a wedding ring.

B. Sharon agreed to marry the author but she wouldn’t wear a wedding ring, either.

C. If the author wouldn’t wear a wedding ring, Sharon wouldn’t marry him.

D. If the author wouldn’t wear a wedding ring, he had to wait for a long time.

4. Which of the following quotes is suitable to describe the above story?

A. It’s better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.

B. A man’s wife has more power over him than the state has.

C. Husbands are awkward things to deal with; even keeping them in hot water will not make them tender.

D. Choose a wife by your ear than your eye.


最近,你校学生会组织学生开展了一场讨论,主题是:What is the beauty standard? 假如你是学生会主席,请根据下表学生讨论的结果写一份总结材料,并谈谈你的看法。

学生观点1 一副好脸蛋就是一封介绍信 理由:在社交、竞争、求职等方面有着不可低估的作用
学生观点2 漂亮不能当饭吃 理由:追求外形的美而放弃内在的美不是真正的美
你的看法 ……




4.参考词汇:内在美inner beauty 当饭吃buy the beef

What does beauty really mean? Everybody has his own definition. ____________________







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