【秒词邦】最新高考英语语法超级表及经典习题 第十三讲:冠词与动词

2020-06-15 21:33| 发布者: admin| 查看: |

【秒词邦】最新高考英语语法超级表及经典习题

第十三讲:冠词与动词

冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。记住:一般情况下名词前都需要加冠词,尤其是写作文时,同学们大都会忽略这一点。具体哪些情况加哪种冠词,请看下面的分析。

一、不定冠词的用法

1
指一类人或事,相当于a kind of
A plane is a machine that can fly.(泛指)
2
第一次提及某人某物,非特指
A boy is waiting for you.
3
表示“每一”相当于every,one
We study eight hours a day.
4
表示“相同”相当于the same
We are nearly of an age.
5
用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或事
— Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith?
—Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here.
A. 不填 B. a C. the D. one
That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋)
6
用于固定词组中
a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time
7
用于quite, rather, many, half, what, such之后
This room is rather a big one.
8
用于so(as, too, how)+形容词之后
She is as clever a girl asyou can wish to meet.
9
用于抽象名词具体化的名词前
success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化)成功的人或事
a failure 失败的人或事 a shame 带来耻辱的人或事
a pity 可惜或遗憾的事 a must 必需必备的事
a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识

二、定冠词的用法

1
表示某一类人或物
In many places in China, ___ bicycle is still ___ popular means of transportation.
A. a; the B. /; a C. the; a D. the; the
2
用于世上独一无二的事物名词前
the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean
3
表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事
Would you mind opening the door?
Do you know the girl standing inside the classroom?
不管是the girl 还是the girl都是对话的双方都知道的,确定的某个人或者某个事。
4
用于演奏乐器(球类不加)
play the violin, play the guitar
5
用于形容词和分词前表示一类人
the reach, the living, the wounded
6
表示“一家人”或“夫妇”(对比上文的不定冠词用法5)
—Could you tell me the way to ____ Johnsons, please?
—Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in the village.
A. the; the B. the; a C. /; the D. the; /
7
用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前
He is the taller of the two children.
最高级前肯定需要加;比较级一般是在指明说两者之中比较高的那个,其实也是被“特指”话。
8
用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前
the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French
9
用于表示发明物的单数名词前
The compass was invented in China.
10
在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代
in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代)
注:“世纪”中英文表达有差异,中翻英要减一,英翻中要加一(如何记?咱汉语比较高端,所以翻译成中文后要加一,反之)
11
用于表示度量单位的名词前
I hired the car by the hour.
12
用于方位名词,身体部位名词
He patted me on the shoulder.

三、不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法

1
专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前
Beijing University(本来就是唯一的,不需要特指不特指),
Jack(本来就是唯一的,不需要特指不特指);
China(本来就是唯一的,不需要特指不特指);
love(比较虚的东西,看不见的东西,不好特指,当然更不好用不定冠词a);
air(比较虚的东西,看不见的东西,不好特指,当然更不好用不定冠词a)
2
名词前有this, my, whose, some, no, each, every等限制
I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this?
3
季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前
March, Sunday, National Day, spring
4
表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前
Lincoln was made President of America.
5
表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前
He likes playing football/chess.
6
与by连用表示交通方式的名词前
We went right round to the west coast by ______ sea instead of driving across ______ continent.
A. the; the B.不填;the C. the; 不填D. 不填;不填
7
以and连接的两个相对的名词并用时
husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night
8
表示泛指的复数名词前
Horses are useful animals.

四、动词和短语动词

动词五种形态
动词有五种形态分别是:原形、第三人称单数形式、过去式、过去分词、现在分词。同学们必须熟记动词各种形式的变化规则,对于常见的不规则动词的第三人称单数形式、现在分词、过去式、过去分词形式要记熟。
We go to school every day. (go为动词原形)
He goes to school every day. (goes为动词第三人称单数形式)
He went to school yesterday. (went为动词过去式)
The book is interesting. (interesting为现在分词)
I’m interested in the book. (interested为过去分词)
动词的分类
行为动词(实义动词)
①及物动词(带宾语):study, develop;
②不及物动词(不带宾语)work, swim, go, come
③状态动词(相对静止)contain, exist, own, prefer, belong
④动作动词:延续性(work, stay);非延续性(marry, go, come)
助动词本身无词汇意义,不能单独用作谓语,协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组。助动词可大致分为三类:基本助动词do,be,have;情态助动词can,could,may,might,will,would,shall,should,ought to,need,dare等;半助动词be going to,be able to,have to,used to,happen to,seem to等。最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would
例如:
He doesn’t like English. (doesn’t是助动词,无词义,帮助构成否定句型;like是主要动词,有词义)
Your letter has been received. (has为助动词,帮助构成现在完成时)
It will be my birthday next Monday. (will为助动词,帮助构成一般将来时)
助动词功能:
表示时态: 
He is singing.
He has got married.
表示语态:
He was sent to England.
构成疑问句:
Do you like college life? 
Did you study English before you came here? 
与否定副词not合用:
I don’t like him. 
加强语气:
Do come to the party tomorrow evening.
He did know that. 
助动词be的用法
助动词be有多种变化形式,is,am,are,was,were,being,been,to be.
be +现在分词,构成进行时态:
They are having a meeting.
English is becoming more and more important.
“be + 过去分词”构成被动语态:
The window was broken by Tom.
English is taught throughout the world.
“be + 动词不定式”用法:
表示最近、未来的计划或安排
He is to go to New York next week.
We are to teach the students some living skills.
表示命令
You are to explain this. 
He is to come to the office this afternoon.
征求意见
How am I to answer him?
Who is to go there?
表示相约、商定
We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow.
用于代替上文,以免重复:
—Are you going to see the film?
—Yes, I am.

助动词have的用法
have +过去分词,构成完成时态
He has left for London.
By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work.
have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时
I have been studying English for ten years.
have + been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态:
English has been taught in China for many years.

助动词do 的用法
构成一般疑问句
Do you want to pass the NMET?
Did you study German? 
do + not 构成否定句
I do not want to be criticized. 
He doesn't like to study. 
In the past, many students did not know the importance of English.
构成否定祈使句
Don't go there.
Don't be so absent-minded.
注意:构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。
放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气:
Do come to my birthday party. 
I did go there. 
I do miss you.
用于倒装句:
Never did I hear of such a thing. 
Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English.
引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so等。
用作代动词:
—Do you like Beijing? 
—Yes, I do. (do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)
He said he would go there and he did.
I like swimming. So does Tom. (does代替like swimming)

助动词shall和will的用法
shall和will作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时:
I shall study harder at English.
He will go to Shanghai.
注意:在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:
He shall come.(shall有命令的意味。)
He will come.(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)

助动词should, would的用法
should无词义,只是shall的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称,例如:
I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week.
would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称。
“I will go,” he said.
He said he would come.
情态动词
can(could),may(might),must,shall(should)
短语动词常见的构成方式及其注意点
动词+副词所构成的短语动词分及物的和不及物的两类
Please turn every light in the house off.(及物)
Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left.
(不及物)注意:
如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开
She turned off all the lights which had been left on.
如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间
She gave them away.她送掉了它们。
③同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异
ring back回电话 ring off挂断电话 ring up打电话
put away放好 put on穿,上演 put up挂起,举起
④不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上有很大的差异
break out发生,爆炸 carry out进行,开展 go out熄灭hand out分发 let out放出 look out当心 sell out卖完 set out出发, take out取出 work out算出
动词+介词(及物)
I'm looking for my glasses.
注意:
①当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。
②同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。
look after照料,look at看,look for寻找
动词+副词+介词
I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。
注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三种搭配都是及物的,如变成被动语态,不可漏掉介词。In this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉after) 这样一来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。
考点聚焦及解题点拨
(单个动词)同义词近义词辨析
从三个方面考虑:词的恰切含义、搭配(与介词、名词或非谓语动词的搭配)和用法(是及物动词还是不及物动词)
系动词的用法
状态系动词be
持续系动词keep,remain,stay,continue,lie,stand,rest
表象系动词seem,appear
感官/感觉系动词look,smell,taste,sound,feel
变化系动词become,grow,get,turn,fall,go,come, run
终止系动词prove,turn out
解答这类试题的关键首先是弄清题意,然后是分析句子结构,由此可判断出该动词是否用作系动词,最后确定所要填入的答案。特别关注:go hungry,come true,turn writer
接双宾语的动词
give sb. sth=give sth.to sb buy sb. sth.=buy sth. for sb
但是我们只能说:suggest sth. to sb. explain sth.to sb. read sth. to sb.
短语动词的辨析
熟记常考的短语动词的意义
容易被我们忽视的知识点
sell, write, wash, wear等词的主动形式后跟副词表示被动意义
happen, occur,take place, break out, come out, belong to等无被动形式

第一部分:冠词

一、完形填空

As a child, I was truly afraid of the dark and of getting lost; these fears were very real and caused me some uncomfortable moments.

Maybe it was the strange 1 things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that 2 me so much. There was never total 3, but a streetlight or passing car lights 4 clothes hung over a chair take on the 5 of a wild animal. Out of the corner of my 6 , I saw the curtains seem to move when there was no 7 . A tiny sound in the floor would seem a hundred times louder than in the daylight. My 8 would run wild, and my heart would beat fast. I would 9 very still so that the “enemy”would not discover me.

Another of my childhood fears was that I would get lost, 10 on the way home from school. Every morning I got on the school bus right near my home —that was no 11 . After school 12 , when all the buses were 13 up along the street, I was afraid that I’d get on the wrong one and be taken to some 14 neighborhood. On school or family trips to a park or a museum, I wouldn’t 15 the leaders out of my sight.

Perhaps one of the worst fears 16 all I had a child was that of not being liked or 17 by others. Being popular was so important to me 18 , and the fear of not being liked was a 19 one.

One of the processes(过程)of growing up is being able to 20 and overcome our fears. Understanding the things that frightened us as children helps us achieve greater success later in life.

1. A. way B. time C. place D. reason

2. A. wounded B. destroyed C. surprised D. frightened

3. A. quietness B. darkness C. emptiness D. loneliness

4. A. got B. forced C. made D. caused

5. A. spirit B. height C. body D. shape

6. A. eye B. window C. mouth D. door

7. A. breath B. wind C. air D. sound

8. A. belief B. feeling C. imagination D. doubt

9. A. lay B. hide C. rest D. lie

10. A. especially B. simply C. probably D. directly

11. A. discussion B. problem C. joke D. matter

12. A. though B. yet C. although D. still

13. A. called B. backed C. lined D. packed

14. A. old B. crowded C. poor D. unfamiliar

15. A. leave B. let C. order D. send

16. A. above B. in C. of D. at

17. A. protected B. guided C. believed D. accepted

18. A. then B. there C. once D. anyway

19. A. strict B. powerful C. heavy D. right

20. A. realize B. remember C. recognize D. recover

二、阅读理解

What is politeness? This sounds like a simple question. In daily life, we often make judgments about what is polite and what is not polite. For example, to offer your seat to the elderly on a bus is considered polite behavior, and to interrupt when someone is talking is considered impolite; to greet someone the first time you meet him in the morning is polite and to stand up to reach for the dish you want at a dinner table is impolite. So politeness can first of all be regarded as a phenomenon, an observable social phenomenon.

What I would like to propose is that as an observable social phenomenon, politeness is something superficial, but to account for what is understood at the surface, we should dig into the depth where different cultural values are rooted.

When being complimented (赞美), an English-speaking person would readily accept the compliment by saying something like "Thank you" to show his appreciation of the praise, but a Chinese speaker would try to deny the truth of the compliment. They both think they are behaving properly. Yet neither of them would think the other is being polite. The English speaker is being polite to the extent that by accepting and showing appreciation of the compliment, and he avoids hurting the positive face of the person who makes it; the Chinese speaker is showing modesty by denigrating himself, ignoring the fact of the compliment paid to him. As has been mentioned, self-denigration has been at the core of the Chinese understanding of politeness for over two thousand years. The Chinese, in order to show modesty, will go to such lengths as to underrate what he himself has achieved and deny the truth of a complimentary remark.

1. According to the first paragraph, politeness can be briefly described as_____.

A. proper social phenomena B. being modest

C. showing appreciation D. an observable social phenomenon

2. In the author's opinion, the nature of politeness lies in ________.

A. something superficial B. what is understood at the surface

C. different cultural values D. the root of different thoughts

3. The underlined word "denigrate" in the passage means ________.

A. appreciate B. deny C. ignore D. compliment

4. Which of the following is TRUE?

A. Chinese speakers dislike being complimented.

B. English-speaking people are reluctant to accept compliment.

C. Chinese tend to show politeness and modesty by denying the truth of praise.

D. Chinese people think highly o f British politeness while English people think poorly of Chinese politeness.

5. What’s the author’s attitude towards Chinese politeness?

A. Approving. B. Objective. C. Optimistic. D. Critical

三、单句改错

1. We stopped to rest for a while and to drink some waters from a stream.

2. We climb everywhere, not only in America. We have been to Europe many time.

3. There are branch library in many villages.

4. In the last five years that they’ve climbed churches, high buildings and television towers.

5. Playing football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also give us a sense of fair play and team spirit.

6. Most people can quickly get help from a doctor or go to a hospital since they are ill.

7. We tried to fix it and there was nothing we could do.

8. I told Mother, Father, Sister, all my friends here what a great time I had.

9. David and I wanted go off to find help.

10. …rather than go into the forest and getting lost.

11. David pointed to a path which he thought would probably leading to a village.

12. When we walked to the car, Bill smiled and shook head.

13. When I have free time I go a long walk.

14. Charles said,“As soon I see a really tall building, I want to climb it.

15. After an hour or so we began to feel very frightening.

16. Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library.

17. Last Sunday, police cars hurry to the taller building in New York.

18. After a hour or so we began to feel very frightened.

19. I decided to climb the tree to see where we were.

20. Bill insisted in staying near the car.

21. Suddenly we caught sight at a car and some men.

22. We were driving along a narrow road when the car stop…

23. …and had returned to the car! Bill is standing at the side of the car.

24. Two months ago they were back in America. Last Sunday, police cars hurry to the…

25. Bill was standing at the side of the car, talking to two men who was helping him to repair it.

四、语法填空

It seems that the old tradition of children getting a bedtime story before sleeping is disappearing in Britain. A new study shows that around a third of parents do not read bedtime stories to their children. The study by Littlewoods.comalso finds that up 1 50 per cent of children would prefer to watch TV or play computer games than be read a story. Researchers further discovered that five per cent of British children under seven do not even own

2 book. Parents came up with 3 (vary) reasons why they did not read to their little ones. The researchers questioned hundreds of parents, thirteen per cent of 4 blamed a lack of time. Besides, some parents said their children were simply not interested.

The researchers 5 (work) with British pop star Natasha Hamilton to try and change this since last month. They have launched a bedtime story-writing 6 (compete) for children under seven. Ms Hamilton said, “I’m really excited to see all the different story ideas and can’t wait to see 7 the kids come up with. 8 (choose) a winner is not going to be easy.” She spoke about her own joy 9 a mother in reading bedtime stories, saying, “I have three kids. I know just how enjoyable reading bedtime stories to my kids is.” A spokesman from Littlewoods.comsaid, “We appreciate how important 10 is for parents and kids to spend quality time together, and bedtime stories are a great way to do just this.”

第二部分:动词

一、语法选择

The mail was ______ for two days because of the snow storm.

A. held out B. held off C. held up D. held down

-- Can I do the job?

-- I’m afraid not, because it ______ skill and patience.

A. calls for B. asks for C. sends for D. cares for

The government has ______ the parents to work with teachers in the education of their children.

A. asked for B. called for C. looked for D. paid for

Though he is ______ worker, he works very hard.

A. an ordinary B. a common C. a usual D. a general

The plan ______ just because people were unwilling to cooperate.

A. turned down B. pulled down C. broke down D. put down

I don’t skate now, but I ______ when I was a kid.

A. used to B. am used to do C. was used to skate D. used to it

Students should be encouraged to finish their homework ______.

A. of themselves B. of their own C. for their own D. on their own

Does the way you thought of ______ the water clear make any sense?

A. making B. to make C. how to make D. having making

Such ______ the case, I couldn’t help but ______ him.

A. being; support B. is; to support C. has been; supporting D. be; supported

-- And besides, these colors are more ______ you.

-- Do you really think so? I’ll take it then.

A. becoming to B. belonging to C. referring to D. used to

I simply couldn’t understand how it ______ that you did so much work within such a short time.

A. came across B. came about C. came up D. came back

No agreement was reached in the discussion because neither side would ______ to ______.

A. give away; the other B. give up; others

C. give in; other D. give out; another

Her face gave her ______ when she told a lie.

A. off B. away C. up D. out

I really don’t want to go to the party, but I don’t see how I can ______ it.

A. get back from B. get out of C. get away D. get off

And there, almost ______ in the big chair, sat her little brother, who never had to be told to be quiet.

A. losing B. having lost C. to be lost D. lost

二、完形填空

I have so many fond memories of one Thursday night. Since I didn’t coach that afternoon, I had 1 time to spend with the kids that I didn’t 2 have. I remember Jace being under his little play gym,hitting the toys 3 the music would play. Then he started 4 from his back to his tummy(肚子). After he was on his tummy for a little while he would get 5 and I would go and turn him over. Within seconds, 6 , he would be back on his tummy. He 7 that he could do it, and it was as though he just couldn’t get 8 .

After supper it was bath time—our 9 time. I will hold the 10 of that last bath forever in my heart. It was the first time that I had taken his baby bathtub out of the tub and11 a towel down for him to lie on so that he could 12 in the water. The sounds of his giggles(咯咯笑) will forever be the 13 sound.

After his bath, Jace was so ready to be 14 and to go to sleep. I put him to bed at his 15 time. A couple of hours later, I went to 16 Jace before going to bed myself. I noticed he was a little 17 , so I got him up and 18 him. I remember being glad that he was wet so I had the 19 to rock and cuddle(抱) him. So we rocked for a while 20 then I put him back to bed.

1. A. little B. extra C. part D. busy

2. A. actually B. really C. apparently D. normally

3. A. in case B. so that C. so long as D. if only

4. A. rolling over B. jumping up C. running around D. washing over

5. A. excited B. disappointed C. frustrated D. tired

6. A. though B. therefore C. anyhow D. obviously

7. A. hoped B. imagined C. loved D. suspected

8. A. sleep B. enough C. support D. much

9. A. spare B. special C. formal D. favorite

10. A. thought B. expectation C. guess D. memory

11. A. moved B. laid C. took D. rolled

12. A. splash B. swim C. float D. stand

13. A. 1argest B. noisiest C. sweetest D. longest

14. A. nursed B. taught C. fed D. cleaned

15. A. early B. hateful C. exact D. usual

16. A. argue with B. check on C. communicate with D. read with

17. A. sad B. excited C. wet D. disappointed

18. A. hugged B. held C. changed D. encouraged

19. A. time B. excuse C. right D. desire

20. A. but B. so C. or D. and

三、阅读理解

Want to put away the cigarettes and talk with some interesting people? Go to a hookah (水烟袋) bar, says Aaron Alu, as he takes a puff from a glass water pipe at the Mirage Coffeehouse and Hookah Lounge in Long Beach.

Apple-scented smoke fills the air as the police officer looks around. “I get to talk to people here that I otherwise wouldn’t ever get to know.” One customer looks up from her laptop computer and nods in agreement.

“I’m sure it’s not great for you,” Alu adds, “but it got me to stop smoking cigarettes.”

Although not even hookah fans suggest that smoking tobacco through a water pipe is healthful, many argue that drawing the smoke through the water removes some of the harmful chemicals. Scientists, however, point out that although the hookah may filter out some irritants, the smoke still contains high levels of nicotine, carbon monoxide and other poisonous chemicals. The trouble is that they can’t say exactly how unhealthful it is, particularly compared with cigarettes.

There are more than 400 hookah cafes across the country, according to an online database of hookah bars, with half of them in California, Illinois, New York, Arizona and Florida. California leads the pack with about 90 hookah bars and cafes, and the number appears to be growing.

The growing popularity of hookah bars has led the World Health Organization to reason whether there is any danger of hookah smoking.

“Any of the major diseases that are associated with cigarette smoking are associated with hookah pipe smoking, ”scientists say. The long-term dangers include lung and heart disease, cancer, emphysema(气肿) and heightened asthma(气喘) attacks.

So tell that to hookah smokers, who say the wave of relaxation that comes with every puff, along with the fellowship of other smokers, outweighs the risks.

1. From the text we know that Aaron Alu ________.

A. used to be a cigarette smoker but now he is a hookah fan

B. wouldn’t be able to talk to any interesting people if he did not come to a hookah bar

C. loves apple-scented smoke and this is what a hookah bar affords

D. is a policeman and he keeps a hookah bar as a part-time job

2. Smoking tobacco through a water pipe ________.

A. is healthier than cigarette smoking, which is proven by scientists

B. is getting more and more popular in the US, and WHO asks for reasons for its popularity

C. presents a growing popularity in the world and threatens our health

D. surely is, though we can’t exactly tell how, unhealthy to our body, according to scientists

3. Which of the following statements about hookah fans is true?

A. They strongly hold that smoking tobacco through a water pipe is healthful.

B. They love the atmosphere in a hookah bar so much that they tend to forget the risks they run when hookah smoking.

C. They always carry their laptop computers when they stay in a hookah bar so that they can communicate.

D. They Din a higher risk of living with lung and heart disease, cancer, emphysema and heightened asthma attacks than cigarette smokers.

4. The scientists’ view is that ________.

A. the hookah doesn’t remove any irritants when hookah smokers smoke through a water pipe

B. hookah pipe smoking is equally dangerous compared with cigarette smoking

C. the longer the water pipe is, the higher risk one takes

D. the danger of hookah smoking is to be discussed before any conclusion is reached

四、单句改错

1. I hope that you two could come and visit us some times soon.

2. Today I visited the Smiths—my first time visit to an American family.

3. They were eager to know everything about China and asked me lots of question.

4. However, there are still some countries there people have shorter lives.

5. …in other places where you are limited to a certain number, of which some may be novels.

6.…in other places you are limited to a certain number, of that some may be novels.

7. …and whether you pay the cost of sending a postcard, the librarian will write to you.

8. I also enjoyed the evenings when we spent together.

9. It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest.

10. I went back to get David and helped him to stood up.

11. Charles and Linda Mason do all of these things as well as climbed building.

12. Modern people know more about health, have better food, and to live in clearer surroundings.

13. Good health is person’s most valuable possession.

14. As a result, people in the modern world generally live much more longer than people in the past.

15. Therefore, there are still some countries where people have shorter lives.

五、语法填空

At one point along an open highway, I came to a crossroads with a traffic light. I was alone on the road by now, but 1 I drove up to the light, it turned red, and I braked to a halt. I look left, right, and behind me. Nothing. 2 a car, no suggestion of headlights, but there I sat, 3 (wait) the light to change, the only human being for at least a mile in any direction.

I started wondering 4 I refused to run the light. I was not afraid of 5 (catch) by the police, because there was obviously no cop anywhere around and 6 certainly would have been no danger in going 7 it. Much later that night, the 8 question of why I’d stopped for that light came 9 to me. I think I stopped because it’s part of a contract (合同) we all have with each other. It’s not only the law, but it’s an agreement we have, and we trust each other to honor 10 : we don’t go through red lights. Like most of us, I’m more ready to be stopped from doing something bad by the social agreement that disapproves of it than by any law against it.

六、书面表达

假设你是育才中学学生会主席李华。针对目前一些地方血库纷纷告急这种情况,请参照以下提示,用英文写一份倡议书,提倡无偿献血(donate blood for free)。

1. 社会上对献血的错误认识;

2.指出献血的意义;

3. 开展相关活动。

注意:词数120-150;可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯;开头与结尾已经写好。

Boys and girls,

Recently some blood banks across the country are reported to be short of blood supplies.

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