【秒词邦】最新高考英语语法超级表及经典习题 第十五讲:形容词和副词

2020-06-15 21:35| 发布者: admin| 查看: |

【秒词邦】最新高考英语语法超级表及经典习题

第十五讲:形容词和副词

一、考情分析

形容词与副词是高考语法的重要内容,也是高考考查的热点。关于形容词与副词这一考点,主要考查以下几个方面:
1. 考查形容词和副词的基本用法
形容词在句中一般作定语、表语、补语,而副词在句中主要作状语。
2. 考查形容词作定语的后置规律
形容词作定语一般位于所修饰的名词前,但下列三种情况形容词要后置:①形容词短语作定语时;②表语形容词作定语时;③修饰复合不定代词时。
3. 考查多个形容词作定语的排序
多个形容词修饰名词时,其排序规律是:(限定词+程度副词+) 描绘+大小(长短、高低)+形状+年龄(新旧)+颜色+国籍或产地+物质材料+类别或用途+名词
4. 考查副词在句中的位置规律
副词修饰形容词或其它副词时,一般位于被修饰词的前面,但enough却要放在被修饰的形容词或副词的后面。
5. 考查–ed形容词和-ing形容词的区别
-ed形容词,通常说明人,意为“(某人)感到……”;-ing形容词通常说明事物,意为“(某事物)令人……”或“令人……的(事物)”。
6. 考查两种不同形式的副词的用法差异
即考查与形容词同形的副词与形容词后加ly构成的副词的区别。
7. 考查形容词和副词的比较等级。
8. 考查比较等级的修饰语。

二、形容词副词的基本用法

1.形容词的位置:
(1)当名词中心词带有多个形容词作前置修饰语时,这些形容词可以大体按下列词序排列:1)限定词—2)一般描述性形容词—3)表示大小、长短、高低的形容词—4)表示形状的形容词—5)表示年龄、新旧的形容词—6)表示颜色的形容词—7)表示国籍、地区、出处的形容词—8)表示物质、材料的形容词—9)表示用途、类别的形容词—10)名词中心词。如:
①It is a charming small round old brown French oak writing desk.
②Yesterday my uncle bought a beautiful large green Chinese carpet.
③Four brilliant young American engineers live here.
但在实际应用中,一个名词词组既不可能带有这么多前置修饰语,也不可能都如此刻板地排列。
(2)形容词一般放在被修饰的名词前面作定语,但考生特别要注意形容词放在被修饰词后面的情况:
①这些形容词,如:alive,afraid,awake,alone,asleep,worth等作定语时,常放于被修饰词的后面。
The baby still asleep might be awake very soon.
②形容词在修饰somebody,something,anybody,anything,nobody,nothing等不定代词时,需要置于其后。如:
—Is there anything wrong,Bob?You look sad.
—Oh,nothing much.In fact,I was just thinking of my friends.
③形容词后面有介词短语时,必须放在名词后面。He is a student worthy of praise.
④形容词后面有动词不定式时,必须放在名词后面。Isn’t it a problem difficult to solve?
2.形容词作状语
形容词作状语表示伴随或结果,并不表达动作的方式。 如:
After a long journey,the three of them got back home,hungry and tired. He lay in bed,wide awake.
3.副词的位置
副词修饰形容词或其他副词时,一般位于被修饰词的前面,但enough要放在被修饰词的后面。
Although she did not know Boston well,she made her way easily enough to the post office.
4.can not/never 与enough或too连用表示“无论怎样都不过分;越……越好”
—I was riding alone in the street and all of a sudden,a car cut in and knocked me down.
—You can never be too careful in the street.
5.副词的排列顺序
(1)时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。
(2)方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。Please write slowly and carefully.
(3)多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。
I don’t know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. There is food enough for everyone to eat.
【友情提醒】
副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。
6.兼有两种形式的副词
(1)close与closely: close意思是“近”; closely 意思是“仔细地”。
(2)late与lately: late意思是“晚”; lately 意思是“最近”。
(3)deep与deeply: deep意思是“深”,表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,“深深地”。
(4)high与highly: high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much。
(5)wide与widely: wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是“广泛地”,“在许多地方”。
(6)free与freely: free的意思是“免费”;freely 的意思是“无限制地”

三、形容词、副词的比较等级

1.比较级中的两个特殊作用的结构 :
The + 比较级 + 句子, the + 比较级 + 句子和 比较级+ and + 比较级。
前一个句型结构表示的意义是“越(怎么样就)越(怎么样)”,在这个结构中的两个“比较级”不要求词性一定相同,它们各自的词性要依句子的需要而定;后一个句型结构表示的意义是“越来越(怎么样)”,在这个结构中的两个“比较级”则要求词性相同。如:
The harder you work at your study, the better academic records you will have.
The more we have, the more we want. He became less and less satisfied with the football team’s performance.
2.比较级与否定词连用可表示最高级之意。如:I have never seen a better film than the one I saw last night.
—Shall we have a short rest? —I can’t agree any more.
3.as+形容词或副词原级+as像……一样………
在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as…
He cannot run so/as fast as you.他跑得不如你快。
【专家提醒】
当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a(an) +单数名词; as + many/much +名词
This is as good an example as the other is.这是一个和另一个一样好的例子。
4.可修饰比较级的程度副词
(1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等。
(2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。
(3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。
5.than构成的习语
(1) more B than A A不如说B
(2) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多 no less… than…与……一样……
(3)more than ,非常
(4)rather than 而不是
(5)other than 除……外。
首先要正确理解以下结构的含义:
not more...than=不如…… no more...than=和……一样不 (否定两者)
not less...than=不如……不 (即指不如 less 后形容词的反面)
no less...than=和……一样 (肯定两者)
比较以下各句的意思:
You are more careful than he is. 你比他仔细。 You are not more careful than he is. 你不如他仔细。
You are no more careful than he is. 你和他一样不仔细。 You are less careful than he is. 你不如他仔细(你比他粗心)。

2.复合形容词的构成

1
形容词+名词+ed
kind-hearted
6
名词+形容词
world-famous
2
形容词+形容词
dark-blue
7
名词+现在分词
peace-loving
3
形容词+现在分词
ordinary-looking
8
名词+过去分词
snow-covered
4
副词+现在分词
hard-working
9
数词+名词+ed
three-egged
5
副词+过去分词
newly-built
10
数词+名词
twenty-year
1
时间副词
soon, now, early, finally, once, recently
5
频度副词
always, often, frequently, seldom, never
2
地点副词
here, nearby, outside, upwards, above
6
疑问副词
how, where, when, why
3
方式副词
hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really
7
连接副词
how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile
4
程度副词
almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather
8
关系副词
when, where, why

四、形容词和副词的比较等级

形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级,比较级和最高级。比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容词和副词后加-er和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加more 和most。

项 目
例 句
同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及not so(as)…as…
She is as tall as her mother.
I am not as/ so good a player as you are.
双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级 (+ than)”的结构表示。要注意题干中将比较的另一方阴藏起来的情况。
This picture is more beautiful than that one.
I have never seen such a more interesting film (than this one).
表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示
This room is less beautiful than that one.
表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型
The harder you work, the more progress you will make
用比较级来表达最高级的意思
I have never spent a more worrying day.
(意为:我度过了最为令人烦恼的一天。)
倍数的表达
表达法一:A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.
The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one.
这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比那座旧楼大(高)三倍。
表达法二:A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B.
Asia is four times as large as Europe.
亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。
表达法三:A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B.
Your school is three times bigger than ours.
你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。
用times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用twice或double.

注意:

1.可以修饰比较级的词有:much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal;

2.表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect,superior,junior等。

【课堂演练】

一、语法选择一

1.In spite of repeated wrongs done to him, he looks _____ to people greeting him.

A. friendly B. lively C. worried D. cold

2.Ten years ago the population of our village was that of theirs.

A. as twice large as B. twice as large as

C. twice as much as D. as twice much as

3.—It shouldn’t take long to clear up after the party if we all volunteer to help.

—That’s right. _____________.

A. Many hands make light work B. Something is better than nothing

C. The more the merrier D. The sooner begin, the sooner done

4.It is _______ to spend money on preventing illnesses by promoting healthy living rather than spending on trying to make people _________ after they are ill.

A. good … good B. well … better C. better … better D. better … good

5.5. My brother is really ____. He often works in his office far into the night.

A. open-minded B. hard-working C. self-confident D. warm-hearted

6.I haven’t seen Ann for ____ long that I’ve forgotten what she looks like.

A. such B. very C. so D. too

7.Although badly hurt in the accident, the driver was _____ able to make a phone call.

A. still B. even C. also D. ever

8.8. A cough is usually nothing to worry about unless it lasts for ten days ___.

A. or more B. instead C. at most D. only

9.Would it be _____ for you to pick me up at four o'clock and take me to the airport?

A. free B. vacant C. handy D. convenient

10.The house still needed a lot of work, but ___ the kitchen was finished.

A. instead B. altogether C. at once D. at least

11.The weather was______ cold that I didn't like to leave my room.

A. really B. such C. too D. so

12.The lawyer seldom wears anything other than a suit______ the season.

A. whatever B. wherever C. whenever D. however

13.You're driving too fast. Can you drive______?

A. more slowly a bit B. slowly a bit more

C. a bit more slowly D. slowly more a bit

14.____ hungry I am, I never seem to be able to finish off this loaf of bread.

A. Whatever B. Whenever C.Wherever D. However

15.It looks likethe weather is changing for______. Shall we stickto your plan?

A. the worse B. worse C. the worst D. worst

16.If a person has not had enough sleep, his actions will give him ___ during the day.

A. away B. up C. in D. back

17.Jack is late again. It is ___ of him to keep others waiting.

A. normal B. ordinary C. common D. typical

18.Last night Mr. Crook didn’t come back at the usual time. ___, he met some friends and stayed out until midnight.

A. Meanwhile B. However C. Instead D. Yet

19.In those days, our ______ concern was to provide people who were stopped by the snow storm with food and health care.

A. normal B. constant C. permanent D. primary

20.As he works in a remote area, he visits his parents only ______.

A. occasionally B. anxiously C. practically D. urgently

一、语法选择二

1.The new group of students is better-behaved than the other group who stayed here ___.

A. early B. earlier C. earliest D. the earliest

2.This magazine is verywith young people, who like its content and style.

A. familiar B. popular C. similar D. particular

3.She devoted herself to her research and it earned her a good reputation in her field.

A. strongly B. extremely C. entirely D. freely

4.He began to take political science only when he left school.

A. strictly B. truly C. carefully D. seriously

5.Water can absorb and give off a lot of heat without big changes in temperature, thus creating an environment.

A. peaceful B. sensitive C. common D. stable

6.It’s hard for him playing against me. I’ve got nothing to play for, but for him, he needs to win so ________.

A. far B. well C. little D. badly

7.There is an old proverb, “Love me, love my dog.” But there is _________ wisdom in this: “Love me, love my book.”

A. some B. much C. more D. most

8.With April 18’s railway speedup, highway and air transport will have to compete with ______ service for passengers.

A. good B. better C. best D. the best

9.The melon the Smiths served at dinner would have tastedif it had been put in the fridge for a little while.

A. good B. better C. best D. well

10.After two years’ research, we now have a ____ better understanding of the disease.

A. very B. far C. fairly D. quite

11.Speaking of all the songs he has written, I think this is probably his ____ one.

A. better-known B. well-known C. best-known D. most-known

12.It is not socially _______for parents to leave children unattended at that age.

A.accessible B.adorable C.adaptable D.acceptable

13.Though he started late. Mr. Guo played the piano as well as, if Miss Liu.

A. not better than B. not better C. no better than D. better

14.Alan is a careful driver, but he drives ______ of my friends.

A. more carefully B. the most carefully C. less carefully D. the least carefully

15.Since Tom ______ downloaded a virus into his computer, he can not open the file now.

A. readily B. horribly C. accidentally D. irregularly

16.John was dismissed last week because of his ______ attitude towards his job.

A. informal B. casual C. determined D. earnest

17.A new _____bus service to Tianjin Airport started to operate two months ago.

A. normal B. usual C. regular D. common

18.The final score of the basketball match was 93-94.We were only ____beaten.

A. nearly B. slightly C. narrowly D. lightly

19.Work gets done ______ when people do it together, and the rewards are higher too.

A. easily B. very easy C. more easily D. easier

20.—Do you need any help, Lucy?

—Yes. The job is ______ I could do myself.

A. less than B. more than C. no more than D. not more than

二 完形填空

Old Sally was a very strange woman. She seldom, not to say 1 , went out of her house. A servant took care of her, but her 2 companions were two cats. For years she had refused to see 3 of her relations as she felt 4 they were interested in was her money.

She was 5 . After her death, the few relations she had 6 at the house to hear Sally’s lawyer read her 7 . They were all sure that Sally had left a great fortune. They each demanded a 8 . This led to heated arguments. 9 they quarreled about the house. Sally’s nephew insisted that it 10 to him as he was one of 11 people who used to visit his old aunt before she 12 off relations with others.

Sally’s cousin was 13 this. So there was an 14 sense in the living-room, then they waited for the 15 to come. When the lawyer 16 , the nephew said jokingly that his aunt had probably left a lot of 17 . The lawyer didn’t 18 smile at this. He asked them all to sit down, and began to read Sally’s will in a 19 voice. Sally had indeed been very rich, but she had left the whole of her fortune to her two 20 .

1. A. never B. ever C. even D. hardly

2. A. true B. indeed C. real D. only

3. A. no one B. any C. none D. some

4. A. how B. that C. which D. all

5. A. wrong B. doubtful C. right D. exact

6. A. collected B. reached C. got D. gathered

7. A. hope B. idea C. will D. wish

8. A. share B. half C. lot D. piece

9. A. Specially B. Probably C.Possibly D. Especially

10. A. was belonged B. go C. give D. was given

11. A. many B. lots of C. few D. the few

12. A. broke B. got C. gave D. kept

13. A. for B. against C. on D. at

14. A. interesting B. ordinary C. exciting D. angry

15. A. servant B. neighbor C. nephew D. lawyer

16. A. returned B. arrived C. reached D. got

17. A. debts B. houses C. fortune D. money

18. A. ever B. yet C. even D. hardly

19. A. low B. good C. usual D. serious

20. A. neighbors B. relations C. cats D. servant

三、阅读理解

Do you suffer from perfectionism (完美主义)?

According to psychologist and perfectionism researcher, Hamachek D.E., there are two types of perfectionism: normal and neurotic (神经质). A person with normal or healthy perfectionism feels a deep sense of pleasure from the dull effort of working towards “perfect”. And then there are the neurotic or unhealthy perfectionists who never feel satisfied but keep struggling towards impossible goals. These people often measure their own self-worth entirely in terms of productivity and accomplishment.

It is necessary to notice if you are struggling and feel tense while trying to perfect your recipe, article, parenting, job, project, etc. — you are fighting and resisting your own humanness (人性).

How do you know if you suffer from perfectionism?

● Are you afraid of making mistakes?

● Do you get impatient with others when they make a mistake?

● If you fail an assignment (任务) at work or school, do you feel like a failure?

● How do you feel when you read these questions?

Your relationship with yourself is the foundation for all of your other relationships. If you are hard on yourself, then you will in turn be hard on others. If we are unable to care for our innermost (内心深处的) beings, then our lives will reflect this fault in some way. Embracing (拥抱) your own humanness is the doorway to seeing the miracles (奇迹) of who you are at your best.

Dr. Bernie Siegel writes in his new book on miracles, “Our body loves us, but it needs to know we love our lives in order for it to do all it can to help us survive. The change in body energy motivated by the love leads to chemical changes in our body and makes a difference. In many cases, this kind of miracle needs hard work. But when you are willing to do the work, and live in your heart, it can happen.”

1. According to t he text, people with neurotic perfectionism probably _______.

A. worry about their health B. get great pleasure from their hard work

C. accept no failure in life D. take great pride in doing dull work

2. The major difference between normal and neurotic perfectionism lies in_______.

A. self-confidence B. self-expectation

C. sense of accomplishment D. sense of satisfaction

3. What does the author suggest to people who suffer from perfectionism?

A. Being patient with others. B. Respecting human nature.

C. Forgiving their own mistakes. D. Sticking to their ambitions,

4. In the opinion of Dr. Bernie Siegel, the miracle has roots in _______.

A. love of our life B. chemical changes in our body

C. hard work D. eagerness for success

【家庭作业】

一 完形填空

Learning to Accept

I learned how to accept life as it is from my father. 1 , he did not teach me acceptance when he was strong and healthy, but rather when he was  2 and ill.

My father was 3 a strong man who loved being active, but a terrible illness  4 all that away. Now he can no longer walk, and he must sit quietly in a chair all day. Even talking is  5 . One night, I went to visit him with my sisters. We started 6 about life, and I told them about one of my  7 . I said that we must always give things up  8 we grow---our youth, our beauty, our friends---but it always  9 that after we give something up, we gain something new in its place. Then suddenly my father 10 up. He said, “But, Peter, I gave up  11 ! What did I gain?” I thought and thought, but I could not think of anything to say.  12 , he answered his own question: “I  13 the love of my family. ” I looked at my sisters, and saw tears in their eyes, along with hope and thankfulness.

I was also  14 by his words. After that, when I began to fell irritated (愤怒的)at someone. I  15 remember his words and become  16 . If he could replace his great pain with a feeling of love for others, then I should be  17 to give up my small irritations. In this  18 , I learned the power of acceptance from my father.

Sometimes I  19 what other things I could have learned from him if I had listened more carefully when I was a boy. For now, though, I am grateful for this one  20 .

1. A. Afterwards B. Therefore C. However D. Meanwhile

2. A. tired     B. weak       C. poor      D. slow

3. A. already    B. still       C. only       D. once

4. A. took      B. threw       C. sent      D. put

5. A. impossible   B. difficult     C. stressful    D. hopeless

6. A. worrying   B. caring       C. talking      D. asking

7. A. decisions   B. experience     C. ambitions    D. beliefs

8. A. as      B. since       C. before      D. till

9. A. suggests   B. promises      C. seems      D. requires

10. A. spoke    B. turned      C. summed     D. opened

11. A. something  B. anything      C. nothing     D. everything

12. A. surprisingly  B. Immediately    C. Naturally     D. Certainly

13. A. had     B. accepted     C. gained      D. enjoyed

14. A. touched    B. astonished    C. attracted    D. warned

15. A. should    B. could       C. would       D. might

16. A. quiet     B. calm      C. relaxed      D. happy

17. A. ready     B. likely      C. free       D. able

18. A. case      B. orm      C. method      D. way

19. A. doubt     B. wonder     C. know      D. guess

20. A. award     B. gift      C. lesson      D. word

二、阅读理解

Many people think the search for cleaner energy leads only to renewable resources like sun, wind and water. But it also leads to a fossil fuel. Natural gas is considered the cleanest of the fossil fuels, the fuel created by plant and animal remains over millions of years. Burning it releases fewer pollutants than oil or coal. The gas is mainly methane (甲烷). It produces half the carbon dioxide of other fossil fuels. So it may help cut the production of carbon gases linked to climate change.

Russia is first in what are called “proved reserves” of natural gas. The United States is sixth. Over the years, big oil and gas companies recovered much of the easily reached supplies of gas in America. They drilled straight down into formations where gas collects. As these supplies were used up, big drillers looked for similar formations in other countries.

fracture

But now the industry is taking a new look. Companies are developing gas supplies trapped in shale (页岩) rock two to three thousand meters underground. They drill down to the shale, then go sideways and inject high pressure water, sand or other material into the rock. This causes the rock to, releasing the gas. Huge fields of gas shale are believed to lie under the Appalachian Mountains, Michigan and the south central states. Gas shale exploration is being done mainly by small to medium sized companies. Eric Potter, a program director, says more than half the gas in the United States is now coming from these new reserves.

But hydraulic (液压的) fracturing can also produce debate and anger over the risk of groundwater pollution. This method of drilling is not federally supervised under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Some in Congress want to end that exemption (豁免) from the law.

Natural gas provides Americans with about one fourth of their energy. And, unlike oil, most of it is produced in America. Gas producers invested heavily in reaching new supplies when prices were high. But prices are down sharply now because the depression cut demand for energy. So energy expert Eric Potter says it is too early to know how the changing market prices will affect the market for gas shale exploration.

1. We can learn from the first paragraph that ______.

A. natural gas releases methane and carbon dioxide

B. natural gas is considered as the cleanest energy

C. natural gas is more environmentally friendly than other fossil fuels

D. natural gas is a renewable source of energy

2. The word “fracture” in paragraph 3 probably means ______.

A. create B. break C. change D. decrease

3. From the passage, we learn that ______.

A. big oil and gas companies only search for gas in their own country

B. gas shale exploration will be taken over by big oil and gas companies

C. there may be huge fields of gas shale under the Appalachian Mountains

D. one fourth of the natural gas in America is coming from gas shale exploration

4. Gas shale exploration may cause disagreement because ______.

A. it may cause water pollution

B. it brings too high profits

C. it breaks the law

D. it is out of states’ control

5. According to Eric Potter, the new gas shale exploration ______.

A. will provide America with about one fourth of their energy

B. will increase demand for energy

C. will make gas producers invest a big sum of money

D. may be influenced by the changing market prices

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