【超级经典】 高考英语阅读理解之技法与实践-题型识别与技巧点拨和实践

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I. 阅读理解题的主要类型
1.判断指代内容 2. 语意转换题 3. 是非判断题 4. 数字计算题 5. 归纳主旨要义(中心思想) 6. 选择文章标题 7. 猜测词句意义 8. 先后排序题 9. 作者的观点态度 10. 推断题( 1)因果推断题 2)推断隐含意义 3)推断写作目的 4)推断文章出处 )
II、阅读理解题型识别
今年高考英语阅读题共有4篇短文,这4篇中有易有难,而每篇短文中的几道题也有易有难,你能够以最快的速度判别出易、难篇以及识别出各篇中的易、难题,进而从易到难,各个突破吗?下面把阅读短文中常见的题型归类,供同学们参考识别。
一、 主要事实或特定细节题(较易) e.g.
1. You can not travel to Indianapolis by ________. A. boat B. train C. bike D. by air
2. Many buildings In Indianapolis are white because ____________.
3. One reason that might explain her pin’s sleeplessness was _________.
4. The Norwegian Government tried to __________.
5. When did the armed policemen arrive at the hotel?
6. Why did Ron Mackie leave school at sixteen?
*计算题 (中等难度), 如 英语周报 第26期 C篇的44题:
How many German scientists mentioned in the passage won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986?
A. One B. Two C. Three D. Four
二、猜测词义、句意题(中等难度) e.g.
1. The underlined words “stap up” means ______.
2. The underlined phrase “canned music” (in paragragh1) refers to ________.
3. The underlined word “context” (in paragraph3) most probably means “________”
4. According to this passage, the “quality food” fed by some parents is actually _____
5. From the first paragraph, we know “… they are all just a few clicks away” means “_______”
三、先后排序题(中等难度)
如. 题干:What’s the correct order of the following events?
a. The man got on a rock below the falls. b.The man was taken to hospital.
c. The man jumped in the falls. d.Two American tourist took photos of the man.
 
A. a, b , c , d B. c , d ,a , b
C. c , a , d, b D. d , c , b , a
四、主题思想(中心思想)题(包括给短文选标题) (中等难度) e.g.
1. The main subject of the passage is _______. 2.What is the story mainly about? _______
3.What is the main idea of the paragraph / this passage? ________
4.The main idea of the passage is that __________.
5.What does this passage/ paragraph mainly discuss? __________
6.Which of the following is the best title for this passage? _________
7.What would be the best title / headline for the text?
五、推理判断题 (难度最大) e.g.
1. From the story we can infer that the first man who was put into stocks in Boston was ___
2. We can infer from the passage that _________.
3. According to the text, which of the following is Not True? (逆问句子提问)
4. Which of the following is True according to the passage?
5. From the passage we can draw/reach/ arrive at a conclusion that ________
六、作者观点、态度和写作意图题 (难度较大)e.g.
1. What is the author’s main purpose? __________
2. What is the writer’s attitude towards TV? __________.
3. What is the purpose of writing this article? __________.
4. According to this passage the writer is trying to _________.
5. According to the passage, the writer thinks that _________.
练习: 请根据下列各题识别出阅读题型 (把相应的字母代号填入括号内)
A. 主要事实或特定细节题(包括计算题)。B. 猜测词义、句意题。C. 句子排序题。D. 主题思想(中心思想)题。E. 逻辑推理和判断题。F. 作者观点、态度和写作意图题。
1. You can infer from the passage that _________. ( )
2. Give the right order of surname development in history. ________ ( )
A. b-a-e-c-d B. a-b-c-d-e C. a-b-c-e-d D. b-a-c-e-d
3. The passage mainly tells us _________. ( )
4. The cause of Markov’s death was that _________. ( )
5. What does the underlined word “straightforward” in the last paragraph mean? ( )
6. The purpose of writing this passage is to __________. ( )
III. 阅读理解的解题技巧与实践
1、 f="">判断指代内容
特点:要求考生根据语境判断代词 (this, that, it, they, them, one, both 等)或代动词 (do, does, did, do that 等)究竟指代什么。
题干:1. what does the underlined phrase “…” refer to?
2. what does the underlined word “they” refer to?
3. The underlined word “them” refers to ________.
4. What does the word "one" in the line mean ?
5. The words "did so" in the last sentence mean _______.
解题技巧:一般说来,代词的指代内容大多在这一句的前、后句中,特别是前句中,或者是前几句中,有的甚至指代前一段话中的某个内容,找到指代的内容后把它放在那个代词的位置上,看看这句话是否合理,与前后的内容是否一致,然后再判定它是否为正确答案。如、
1. "You comforted me in my darkest hour,Vince, You've found a way to deal with your own frustration. By destroying the porch, you let the sunshine in, I like it very much"
The underlined word "it" in Paragraph 10 refers to the _______.
A. Darkest hour B. Frustration C. Sunshine D. porch
2....These super-thin sports shoes are causing a stir in the world of running and fitness. Why? Because some experts believe they could make you a better, more efficient runner and that traditional trainers could be doing you more harm than good.
The underlined word "They" in paragraph2 refers to ________.
A. Experts B. Feet C. Shoes D. Runners.
3. .. Dr.Johnson invited Dr.Turner to have dinner with him in a restaurant before catching the train back to London. Dr. Turner noticed that Dr.Johnson was fond of good food and expensive wines. They had an excellent meal. When the bill was brought, Dr.Johnson felt in his pocket. "Oh, dear," he said. "I've forgotten my money." "That's all right," Dr.Turn said. "I'll pay the bill." As he did so, he began to wonder whether Dr.Johnson was worthy of trust.
The words did so in the last sentence mean ______
A. Caught the train back to London B. Paid the bill C. Felt in his pocket D. Said those words
2、 语意转换题 (特殊疑问题)
特点:语意转换题是事实细节题中常见的一种,是指题目中的某一选项不同的词语或句式来表达与文章中某个词语或句子相同的意思。
题干:1. You need to build a positive self-image when you _______
2. What did Duret do shortly after the ambulance came?
3. When was Duret most probably found to be the very hero?
4. Mary’s second book Growing Up Again is mainly about her _______.
5. When Mary received the life-changing news, she ________.
解题技巧:
(1) 迅速定位,缩小范围
通过寻读法(scanning)用题干中的关键词在文中搜索,迅速确定相关信息所在的位置缩小阅读范围。
(2) 对照选项,确定答案
在找到关键词句后,要仔细阅读,正确理解,对照选项,看哪个选项的意思与之最接近。
(3) 排除干扰,选出答案
在作出选择的过程中,要善于辨别真伪,排除干扰,不断缩小范围,选出正确答案。
1. Beatrix Potter was born into a rich London-based family where she was tutored by very strict private teachers and so spend her youth isolated from other youngsters. During her youth she had a lot of pets and spent vacations in Scotland and also the lake District. It was at the Lake District that she developed a love of wildlife. She studied the area's natural wonders carefully and pained them continuously. But her old-fashioned, Manchester-born parents discouraged her intellectual improvement, thinking it inapproprate for a young lady.
What can we learn about Beartrix Potter's early life?
A. She learned drawing skills from her tutors.
B. She was very social and outgoing.
C. She was greatly inspired by the beauty of nature.
D. She was encouraged to think creatively and independently.
2.The dirty, homeless man sat on the pavement, staring at the stones. He thought back more than twenty years to when he was a boy living in a small red brick house on this very street. He recalled the flower garden, the swing his dad made, and the bike he had saved up for months to buy.
The man shrugged impatiently, for the brightness of those picture hurt him, and his memory travelled on another ten years.
Why did the man shrug(耸肩) impatiently (paragraph2) while he was thinking of his childhood?
A. The thoughts made him angry. B. He felt he had wasted time.
C. He was anxious to go home D. The sweet memory caused him much pain.
3. Though often called the koala "bear", this lovely animal isn't a bear at all; it's a marsupital. after giving birth, a female koala carries her baby in her pocket for about six months. When the young comes out, it rides on its mother's back or hangs on to her belly(肚子)until it's about a year old.
When does a baby koala leave her mother's pocket?
A. About two months old later. B. About six months old later.
C. About a year old later. D. About two years old later.
4. Sam and Joe were astronauts. There was once a very dangerous trip and the more experienced astronauts knew there was only a small chance of coming back alive. Sam and Joe, however, thought it would be exciting though a little dangerous." We're the best men for the job," they said to the boss.
Most of the astronaut were unwilling to go on the trip because ____________.
A. There was little chance of being selected B. They weren't experienced enough.
C. They thought they might get killed D. it wasn't exciting enough.
3、是非判断题
特点:命题形式是“三正一误”或“三误一正”。题干中常含有true, Not true, Not mentioned, except 等。
题干:1. Which of the following statement is Not true according to the text?
2. Which of the following is TRUE according to Paragraph3?
3. All of the following statements are false except ....
4. The following statements are considered true except ...
解题技巧:
1) 解题时, 一般要根据题干和选项内容,带着关键词到原文中找到相关句 以确认其正误。
2) 一定看清楚题干,弄清题目要求选“正”还是“误”, "Not true, EXCEPT, Not mentioned", 就是选“误”, 而“true" , "...are false except..."是要求选“正”
1. Mr Dodds works in a bank, and lives on his own. The only family he has is in the next town: his sister lives there with her husband and her son, Mark. Mr Dodds does not see his sister or her family from one year to the next, but he sends them Christmas cards, and he has not forgotten one of Mark's seventeen birthdays.
Which of the following statement is true?
A. His sister is the only member of the family that he knows.
B. His sister lives with Mr Dodds, with her husband and son.
C. His sister lives in the next town with her husband and son.
D. His sister has only one family: a son and Mark, her husband.
2. Despite strict laws to stop noise pollution, the situation in Buenos Aires is not improving, the study says. There are many reasons why Buenos Aires is so noisy. About one-third of Argentina's 40 million people live in or near the city, which is a lot of people in a relatively small space. They live largely in high-rise blocks of flats on long, straight streets which channel (传送)the sound.
Which of the following is true of Buenos Aires?
A. It lacks strict laws to control noise pollution.
B. It built straight streets to reduce the noise.
C. It is smaller than New York Tokyo or Nagasaki.
D. It is home to about 30% of Argentina's population
1-3种阅读题型综合训练篇
When a person passes through the customs(海关) between two countries, he would be questioned by a customs inspector. If a person brings in goods of great value, the inspector may ask him to pay taxes on them. Some people try to hide the valuables they have with them so that they will not have to pay these taxes. But customs inspectors are hard to fool.
Inspector Joseph Koehler has worked for the US Customs Service for years. One day a group of passengers arrived on a flight from Belgium.
Koehler took special notice of one of the women among them. At first he did not know what made him pick her out of them--- the woman's baggage was made of a purse and two suitcases. She showed no sign of fear when Koehler opened them. Yet Koehler could not rid himself of the feeling that something was wrong.
Suddenly he knew what it was. The woman was too tall. This woman's height didn't seem right somehow. Then it was found that the bottom parts of her shoes were filled with something.
The inspector opened them. A handful of diamonds fell out on the floor. More jewels were found under a false bottom in one of her suitcases. Their total weight was 3,387 carats. It was one of the largest diamond hauls(缴获)ever made by the US Customs.
1. From the passage, we can know that Joseph Koehler ______.
A. Only asked the women passengers to pay taxes on the valuable goods.
B. Had worked for almost one year in the US customs.
C. Opened every passengers' package when they passed the customs
D. Found a false bottom in one of the woman's suitcases
2. The woman brought in valuable goods from _______.
A. Africa B. Europe C. Asia D. America
3. The underlined word "it" ( in Paragraph) refers to "_____"
A. The reason to pick the woman out B. The tax the woman should pay
C. The woman's baggage D. The inspector's duty
4. We can learn from the last paragraph that ______.
A. The woman was fond of making jokes B. The jewels were of high quality
C. Koehler made great contributions to US Customs
D. US Customs are in great need of inspector like Koehler
5. Which of the following statement is TRUE according to the passage?
A. The woman made some changes to her baggage.
B. Koehler was attracted by the woman's beauty.
C. The job of a customs inspector is dangerous.
The jewels were damaged by the US Customs.
4. 数字计算题 (P36)
如果问的内容是由数字表示的实事或细节,比如时间、价格、次数、人数等,答案往往经过计算才能回答,把文中出现的数字都要找出确定它们之间的关系之后,再进行合适的推数,才可做出最后选择,以免理解错误。如,
Paragraph1: More personalized wildlife viewing limited to 130 people providing closer viewing of the penguin arrival than the main viewing stands. Adult $25.00 Child $ 12.50
How much would a couple with one child pay for a closer viewing tour?
A. $ 37.50 B. $ 62.50 C. $ 180.00 D. $ 150.00
Paragraph2: Three people are required for professional cleaning in the CBD area. Working hours from5:00 pm on Mondays, Wednesdays & Fridays. Approximately five hours per shift (轮班). A good record is necessary. Experience preferred. Phone 6345 7843 now.
The office cleaners will be required to work about ______ hours a week.
A. 5 B. 10. C. 15. D. 20
Passage3:House prices in England increases sharply between 1971 and 1972. The following record shows how much a house in London had risen in price since 1955.
Take No.29 Smith Terrace for example. In 1955, Jane Grey sold it for £ 2000. Mrs Bowena Black bought it next for £ 4900 and sold it nine years later to Green White for £22590. Four years later, in 1972, the house was valued at £ 30000.
1) The price of the house in 1972 was _______ as high as that in 1955.
A. Twice B. About three times C. Ten times D. Fifteen times
5. 归纳主旨要义(中心思想) (P73)
阅读理解首先是对文章中心思想的理解,这就要求考生归纳全文的中心思想或某段的段落大意。这类题的题干中一般含有main/general /central idea / topic / subject/ mainly 等字眼。解答这类试题时,应注意以下几点:
寻找主题句是解题的关键。主题句通常在文首、文末或首尾呼应,有时在句中,也可能没有主题句,这时需要对文章进行归纳。寻找主题句有以下四个巧门
1)段落中出现转折时,该句很可能就是主题句。
2)作者有意反复重复的观点通常是主旨;反复出现的词语,一般为体现文章主旨的关键词。
3)首段出现疑问句时,对该问题的回答很可能就是文章的主旨。
4)提出文章主旨时常伴有的文字提示有 therefore, thus, but, however, in fact, in short 等等。因此,这些词后的内容很可能就是文章主旨。如,Passage1
“People who talk and sing to plants are not foolish," says Arnold Braymar, a government agriculture expert. "In fact, singing and talking to plants makes them grow better." The reason is quite simple--- when we sing or talk to pants, we breathe out carbon dioxide which plants need to live on and grow strong. Plants take in the carbon dioxide through their pores(毛细孔)during the sunlight hours and produce oxygen which people need much. Singing and talking is effective, however, only during the daytime. Bedtime lullabies(催眠曲)will not help plants to sleep better or grow faster.
1) Which sentence best expresses the main idea?
A. Doctors are worried about people who connect with nature.
B. Plants and flowers should not be left in bedrooms at night.
C. The practice of singing and talking to plants can be justified scientifically.
D. Plants must be placed away from people.
2) The topic of this paragraph should be _______
A. Tell Me More B. Carbon dioxide, please C. People Are Funny D. Let's Clear the Air
Passage2:Moscow, Russia(Space news)---"The computer is a better chess player," insisted Viktor Prozorov, the loser. "It seemed as if it were laughing after every good move. I know I should have beaten it for the sake of mankind, but I just couldn't win," he announced and shook his head sadly.
Prozorov's disappointment was shared by several grand masters who were present, some of whom were so upset that they shouted at the machine. Many chess players said that this meant the end of chess championships(锦标赛)around the world, since the fun had been taken out of the game.
The computer walked--- or rather, rolled--- away with 5,000 dollars in prize money and limited its remarks to a set of noises and lights.
Which of the following best gives the main idea of this news paper article?
A. 5,000 dollars goes to a computer! B. New invention: a laughing computer!
C. World's best chess player beaten! D. Computer defeats man in chess!
Passage3: Songs play an important role when teaching English online. Songs that are famous around the world are especially suitable for students who want to improve their spoken English. They give the student a different and fun way of learning new vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation while practice his spoken English through singing or reading the lyrics(歌词)out loud.
When introducing the song,...
The first paragraph is mainly about ______.
A. Ways to learn English songs online. B. Those who are advised to learn English online
C. The way of learning English without a teacher.
D. The role of songs when learning English online.
6. 选择文章标题 (P82)
给文章选择一个恰当的标题(title) 几乎是必考题。要正确选出标题,必须首先要理解文章大意,明确文章主旨。一篇文章必须会有一个主旨。选择时,要仔细推敲各个选项,排除错误选项,缩小选择范围,从而选出最佳答案。错误选项指的是:
(1)断章取义:虽含文中的某些单词,但文章所谈内容与此无关。
(2)范围太窄:概括不前面,只是某个细节或某部分的内容。
(3)范围太宽:所表达的内容超出文章阐述的内容。
(4)无中生有:即文章中未提到,或找不任何依据的信息。如,Passage1
On the evening of June 21, 1992, a tall man with brown hair and blue eyes entered the beautiful hall of the Bell Tower Hotel in Xi'an with his bicycle. The hotel workers received him and telephoned the manager, for they had never seen a bicycle in the hotel hall before though they lived in "the kingdom of bicycles".
Robert Friedlander, an American, arrived in Xi'an on his bicycle trip across Asia which started last December in New Delhi, India.
Robert Friedlander's next destination were Lanzhou, Dunhuang, Urumqi etc. He will complete his trip in Pakistan.
The best headline (标题)for this newspaper article would be _______.
A. The Kingdom of Bicycles B. A Beautiful Hotel in Xi'an
C. Marco Polo and the Silk Road D. An American Achieving His Aims
Passage2:Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston in 1706. After an apprenticeship(学徒身份)as a printer, he left Boston when he was seventeen years old and went to Philadephia to seek his his independence and fortune. During his lifetime, Franklin was a printer, inventor, author, statesman, and diplomat(外交家). He first became world-famous because of his experiment in electricity. As an author his most famous work was his unfinished Autobiography. He played many important roles during the time of the American Revolution; he was an extremely able diplomat, and he was one of the five men chosen to write the Declaration of Independence. He was active in government until his death in 1790.
The best title for this article would be ______
A. Benjamin Franklin's Job. B. Seeking Independence and Fortune
C. Benjamin Franklin D. Famous Diplomat.
7. 猜测词句意义 (P93)
这类考题包括对生词生义的推测、熟词生义的推测,以及对短语或句子语境意义的推测。
解答这类试题最重要的方法是理解含生词、短语或句子所处的上下文,只有这样,才可以真正把握他们特定的语境中的特殊含义。注意以下小技巧:1. 根据并列关系 2)根据选择或相对关系 3)根据同位或解释关系 4)根据转折或对比关系。如,Passage1
Scientist had long dreamed of splitting the atom and let out some of its huge quantity of energy. They didn't find out how to do it until the 1940s.
Uranium is one of the matters whose atoms can be split fairly easily. A small particle(粒子)is added to an atom of uranium, which then breaks into two smaller atoms. The change has other results. It makes the uranium very hot. It also produce two or three free particles of the kind first added. These free particles move around, splitting other uranium atoms, and so begins a "chain reaction", which produces more and more free particles. Both the heat and the chain reaction are important.
The underlined words "Chain reaction" means ________.
A. Free particles produced in the reaction will split other atoms, which in turn will produce more free particles.
A. Free particle will split more atoms after splitting some atoms.
B. Atoms split by free particles will continue to split
C. Reaction can go on and on with the help of a chain of particles.
Passage2:... Somehow, the gift of gratitude she had given me was far more than the "seat" I had offered her! It was difficult to say who was doing the giving.
By saying "It was difficult to say who was doing the giving", the author is trying to tell us ______.
A. giving and receiving really go hand in hand B. The giver of kindness is seldom recognized
C. doing the giving is sometimes difficult
D. acts of giving are not usually performed these days
Passage3:Mark is leaving. Please excuse me if I'm a little pensive today. You probably don't know Mark, but you might be lucky enough to know someone just like him. He's been the heart and soul of the office for a couple of years, performing professional skills. He's never been all that interested in getting credit for the terrific work he does. He just wants to do his job, and to do it well. And now he's moving on to an exciting new professional opportunity....But that doesn't make it any easier to say goodbye to a dear friend and trusted colleague.
The underlined word "pensive" (Para.1) probably means _______
A. grateful B. pleased C. sad D. Confused
8.先后排序题 (P161)
这种试题要求考生确定动作发生的先后顺序。常见的提问方式是:What is the right order of ...? What’s the correct order of the following events?
解题技巧:1)采用“首尾定位法”,即确定首项和尾项(先找出第1个动作和最后一个动作,迅速缩小选择范围,按照事件发展的先后顺序进行其它项的比较,从而得出结论。
2) 首先观察题目4个选项中排序的特点确定正确答案可能出现哪一对选项中,然后快速浏览全文,注意事物发展的先后顺序,通过比较,即可得出正确答案。
1.(2012年广州一模的C篇阅读,第38题:In what order did the following events take place?
a.He took the money from his parents. b. He bought a bicycle with his savings.
c. He was sentenced to prison. d. He wrote the letter home.
e. He sat on the pavement f. He hitchhiked back home.
A. b, a, c, d, e, f B. b, a, c, f, d, e C. a, c, b, d, f, e D. a, d, b, c, e, f
Passage2:In 19th century England people liked to go to the seaside. In those days, ladies wore long bathing dresses, and men wore bathing suits. Women did not walk about on the beach in their bathing dresses. They hired a bathing machine. A bathing machine was used for changing in, and for taking the bather down to the sea. It cost 2 pence to hire a machine and an attendant. When she had paid, the bather climbed up the back steps and got into the bathing machine. Then she changed into her bathing dress. When she had changed, the machine was pulled down to the sea. The bathing machine stopped in the water and the bather went down the front steps into the water. If she did not want to get into the sea, the attendant pulled her in.
In the 19th century people who used the bathing machine usually did the following things. Which is the right order for doing them?
a. Changing into bathing clothes b. Getting out of the bathing machine
c. Paying 2 pence d. Getting into the bathing machine
e. Being taken down the beach f. Getting into the water.
A. e, d ,a ,b ,f ,c B. c, d, a, e, b, f C. c, d, e ,a, b, f D. d, a, e, b, f, c
9. 作者的观点态度题 (P210)
要求考生推断作者对某人或某事物所持的观点(看法)或态度(好恶)
1. 态度题 态度指作者对某人某事是支持、反对;是批评还是赞扬;主观还是客观,悲观还是乐观。1)题干特征:常含attitude 一词,常见的题干有:
The author's attitude toward...is _________
Which of the following can best describe the attitude of the author towards...?
2) 选项用词:积极类( objective, positive, optimistic, impartial, helpful, supporting, approval, admiring/ interesting, concerned, confident ) 。消极类(subjective, doubtful, negative, opposition, pessimistic, disgusting, critical (批评的), disappointed, worried )
3) 解题技巧:①作者对某事物是支持还是反对,态度一般是非常明确的,表示中立的词是错误答案,表示“客观”的词多为正确选项 (objective, impartial) ; 作者对文中提到的某人的态度时,答案只能是肯定或否定,支持或反对。(critical, approval, opposition, supporting)
② 考生不要用自己的态度代替作者的态度,也不要用文中提到的某人的态度代替作者本人的态度。③当作者的态度不明朗时,考生要学会根据作者使用词语的褒贬性去判断作者的态度。如(successful(ly), positive(ly), active(ly), negative(ly), unfortunate (ly), doubtful(ly) 等。
2.观点题 就是问作者对某人或某事物的具体看法,题干中常有 opinion, view 等。如,
What is the author's opinion about ...? According to the author, _________. In the author's opinion / view, ....
解题技巧:1)文中陈述的内容并不一定都是作者的观点。作者可能为了证明自己的某种观点而引用了别人的观点,解题时要注意区别。
2)作者观点一般与文章主旨相关联。 如,Passage1.
The elephant is the only animal in the world with a trunk. It uses its trunk in many ways. ...
When an elephant is angry,its tusks can be very dangerous. The tusks of an elephant are really its front teeth. People pay a lot of money for the ivory of an elephant's tusks. In Africa men have hunted elephants for their tusks. The ivory from the tusk is made into many beautiful things.
In the author's opinion, an elephant's tusks are _________.
A. expensive B. dangerous C. beautiful D. Both A and B
Passage2. Animal Right is a movement that intends to protect all animals from being used and abused by humans. This includes the use of animals for anything that causes them pain and suffering, such as medical experimentation, imprisonment in zoos,and fur production. The Animal Rights movement has very different objectives than animal welfare groups. While welfare activities fight for a more humane treatment of animals in general, animal rights activities want animals to be considered as individuals, rather than property(财产).
What's the author's attitude towards the Animal Rights movement?
A. Uninterested B. Disapproving C. Objective D. Doubtful
Passage3. And what is wrong with a society that thinks that making up a good excuse is like creating a work of art? One of common problems with making excuses is that people, especially young people, get the idea that it's okay not to be totally honest all the time. There is a corollary (直接推论)to that: if a good excuse is "good" even if it isn't honest, then where is the place of the truth?
What is the author's opinion about a good excuse?
A. Making a good excuse is sometimes a better policy.
B. Inventing a good excuse needs creative ideas.
C. A good excuse is as rewarding as honesty.
D. Bitter truth is better than a good excuse.
Passage4 -(周报25期-A篇 第30题)
... That is obviously bad for the ears, and can also cause stress. With no immediate improvement is sight, the only solutions are to leave the city, wear ear muffs or talk a little louder.
30. According to the text, the author ________.
A. is doubtful about the harm of noise pollution B. is confident of Buenos Aire's improvement
C. suffers from mental diseases caused by the noise
D. is disappointed by noise levels in Buenos Aires
10.推断题(infer)--- 1)因果推断题 (P63) 2)推断隐含意义(P113) 3)推断写作目的 (P124 ) 4)推断文章出处 (P232)
推理题是对深层阅读理解的要求,分为明显推断题和含蓄推断题。阅读答题时,应以文章的已知信息为前提,以事实为依据,有时还要以文章的语境、内涵和笔调为前提,透过文章的表层而达到深层,方可得出文章未加说明的却又合乎逻辑的结论,选择正确答案。
选项设计特点: a.与文中事实相矛盾(contradictory of fact); b. 违反逻辑(against logic); c. 文中无此事实 (no mentioned) 或原文信息的简单重复(repeated simply) d. 正确答案(correct)
I.明显推断题:题干通常含有 infer(推断), imply(暗示),indicate (暗示)suggest(暗示), 和conclude等词。常用的提问方法有:1. It can be inferred from the passage that ...
1)Which of the following can be readily inferred 3) We can conclude from the passage that...
4) The passage implies that... 5) The writer suggest that... 如,
Passage1: A well-known old man was being interviewed and was asked if it was correct that he had just celebrated his ninety-ninth birthday.
"That's right," said the old man."Ninety-nine years old, and I haven't an enemy in the world. They're all dead."
"Well, sir," said the interviewer," I hope very much to have the honor of interviewing you on your hundredth birthday."
The old man looked at the young man closely, and said, "I can't see why you shouldn't. You look fit and healthy to me!"
We can conclude from the passage that the old man was a kind of man ________
A. He was silly B. He was unpleasant C. He was very proud and sure of his health.
D. He was very impolite to young people
Passage2: Two miners, trapped 116 feet underground for 24 days in a collapsed(倒塌的)gold mine, were rescued today. Both were muddy but smiling when, wrapped in white bed sheets, they were carried out of the mine on stretchers.
The miners smiling implied that _______.
A. they were muddy. B. they had found gold C. they had been wrapped in sheets
D. they were rescued
Passage3: (周-25期-A 篇)....The city has a network of poorly managed buses, which rush along narrow streets with noisy engines and screeching brakes. Train run through the heart of the city, and impatient motorists sit in traffic jams hooting their horns. Buenos Aires can also be hot and humid, so windows are left open or air conditioners whirr away day and night.
It can be inferred from the text that in Buenos Aires _______.
A. the traffic is well managed B. trains will replace buses
C. hot weather leads to more noise D. many people have left due to the noise
II. 含蓄推断题 (推断写作目的; 推断文章出处 )
1.推断写作目的题:要求考生推断作者写这篇文章的目的。题干中常有 purpose, intend to, meant to , in order to 等。考生可根据文章的主旨和体裁来推断作者的写作目的。文章的首尾段或每段的首尾句是阅读的重点,作者的写作意图往往就隐含在其中。
作者写文章的目的通常有三种:1)to entertain readers: 常见于个人经历或故事类的文章
2)to persuade readers: 常见于广告或议论文 3)to inform readers : 多见于科普类、新闻报道类、文化类、社会类以及劝告性或建议性的文章。弄清其写作目的,需要找准主题句,把握文章主旨。常见的题干有:、。
1) What is the purpose of this passage? 2) The main purpose of this passage is ...
3) This passage is intended to ...4) Which of the following may best describe the purpose of this passage? 如, Passage1:
A young man from a village called Nawalapitiya married a young woman from Maliyuwa, a nearby village. They lived with the man's big family --- his parents, his brothers, their wives and children. The family kept an elephant, in which the young woman soon took a great interest. Every day she fed it with fruit and sugar.
Three months later the woman went back to her parent's home, having quarrelled with her husband. Soon the elephant refused to eat and work. It appeared to be ill and heart-broken. One morning after several weeks the animal disappeared from the house.
It went to the woman's home. On seeing her, the elephant waved its trunk and touched her with it. The young woman was so moved by the act of the animal that she returned to her husband's home.
The writer wrote the story in order to _______
A. Show that elephants are very clever B. Tell how a woman trained a wild animal
C. Show that women care more for animals than men do.
D. Tell how an animal re-united a husband and wife
Passage2 (周报26期-A篇):
... Life is harder for teens of this generation, she says,"It's a constant pressure to have things like others have, to be able to do things that others do," Logan says. "When you don't have two breadwinners in the house, it's hard." ...
The purpose of this text is to _______. A. prove teens are under great pressure
B. explain why kids want independence C. advise readers to fight against others
D. expect kids to get along well with others.
2. 推断文章出处题:要求考生推断文章出自何种文献,属于何种学科。提问的方式有:
1) The passage is most likely to be taken from _______.
2) Where can we most probably read this passage?
Where would this passage most probably appear?
3) The passage is most likely to be found _______. 如,passage1.
Do you always understand the directions on a bottle of medicine? Do you know what is meant by "Take only as directed?" Read the following directions and see if you understand them.
To reduce pain, take two tablets with water, followed by one tablet every eight hours, as required, For night-time and early morning relief take two tablets at bedtime. Do not take more than six tablets in twenty-four hours.
This passage is most probably taken from a ________.
A. textbook B. newsreel C. doctor's notebook D. bottle of medicine
IV. 阅读理解综合题型演练
A
The story tells about an American general. He was a very important hero in the American army during the First World War. Everybody in the United States knew him and many people wished to have a picture or something of his in their homes.
Soon after the war the general returned to Washington. One day he went to a dentist and had six teeth pulled out. A week later the general heard that his teeth were being sold in curiosity shops at five dollars each. On each of the teeth there was a label(标签)with the name of the general and words""Buy these teeth and show them to your friends at home". The general got angry. He rushed to his office and ordered six officers to go around the city and buy all his teeth.
In the evening they returned and put on the table in front of the general the teeth they had bought. They had collected 175 teeth.
1.There was the general's name on the label of each tooth. This implies _______
A. The general's name was known by most of the people in Washington.
B. The shop-keeper wanted to have more people buy the teeth.
C. The shop-keeper tried to make general known by more people in Washington.
D. Both A and C
2.The general ordered his men to ________.
A. look for this teeth and buy all of them. B. catch the dentist at once
C. make all the shops stop selling teeth. D. buy all the teeth in all the curiosity shops.
3.The general returned to Washington ________
A. during the war B. after the Civil War. C. after 1945. D. after 1918
4.The best title for this passage is ________
A. An Important General B. How to Find the General's Teeth
C. The Valuable Teeth D. The General and His Teeth.
5.In the evening, the offices went back with all the teeth paid ______ dollars for them.
A. 785 B. 1050 C. 157 D. 875
B.
Like most people your intelligence changes from season to season. You are probably a lot sharper in the spring than you are at any other time of the year. A well-known scientist, Ellsworth Huntington, concluded from other men's work and his own among peoples in different climates that climate and temperature have a clear effect on our intelligence.
He found that cool weather is much better for creative thinking than warm weather at learning in the summer as they are during the rest of the year. It does mean, however, that the intelligence of large numbers of people seems to be lowest in the summer.
Spring appears to be the best period of the year for thinking. One reason may be that in the spring man's intelligence is effected by the same factors that bring about great changes in all nature.
Autumn is the next-best season, then winter. As for summer, it seems to be a good time to take long holidays from thinking!
6.Huntington decided that climate and temperature have ______.
A. some effect on most people's intelligence
B. a great effect on everyone's intelligence
C. a great effect on the intelligence of those living in a hot climate
D. a deep effect on the intelligence of those living in a hot climate
7.One possible reason why spring is the best period for thinking is that ______
A. It is the first season of the year B. It lasts longer than the other seasons
C. It has more sunny days than rainy days D. It is good for the growth of all nature
8.We may conclude that Huntington_________
A. invented many things after he had drawn the conclusion
B. joined some other men research work
C. drew the conclusion only from his own experience.
D. got support his work from peoples in different climates
9.Which of the following is the right order from the worst period to the best period of the year for thinking?
A. Summer -winter-autumn-spring. B. Spring- autumn - winter-summer
C. Summer-autumn -winter -spring D.spring - summer- autumn - winter
10.Which tittle best gives the main idea of the passage?
A. The Seasons of the Year B. Climate and Temperature
C. Intelligence and the Seasons D. Great Changes in Nature
C.
Mother Teresa was born in Yugoslavia(南斯拉夫)on August 27th,1910. She attended the government school near her home until she was eighteen. At that time, some doctors and nurses from Yugoslavia were working in India, and they often wrote to the school about their work. She decided to join them one day.
When she finished school, she went first to Britain. Then a year later she went to India, where she began to train to be a teacher. After training, she was sent to Calcutta,where she taught geography at a school and soon after she became headmistress.
However, although she loved teaching, in 1946 Mother Teresa left the school and went to work in the poor parts of Calcutta. Later she trained to become a nurse in Patna, and then began her work helping the poor and comforting the dying in the streets of the city. Slowly, others came to help her, and her work spread to other parts of India.
Mother Teresa is now a well-known person. Many photos have been taken of her, as she travels the world to open new schools and hospitals in poor countries. In 1979, she was given the Nobel Peace Prize for the lifetime of love and service she has given to the poor.
11. Where did Mother Teresa receive her education?
A. In Yugoslavia and India B. In Yugoslavia and Britain
C. In Britain and India D. In Yugoslavia, Britain, and India
12. What first inspired Mother Teresa to work in India?
A. Her visit to the poor parts of Calcutta B. Her visit to Britain after she left school
C. The medical workers' letters to her school D. The work of the nurse in the city of Patna
13. In which order did Mother Teresa do the following things?
a. Trained to be nurse b. Went to India c. Helped the dying d. Studied to be a teacher
e. Went to Britain f. Worked as a headmistress
A. b, a, c, e, d,f B. b, f, a, d, e, c C. e, b, d, f, a, c D. e, a, b, c, d, f
14. Mother Teresa gave up teaching because she wanted _______.
A. to look after the poor B. to travel to poor countries
C. to build hospitals for the poor D. to train nurses to care for the poor
15. Mother Teresa is now a famous person because she has ________.
A. saved many poor people in India B. helped to bring about world peace
C. helped to make India a more peaceful place D. taken care of many poor people in the world.
D.
People and the sources of air pollution are found in the same places. This means that cities with large populations have the biggest problem of dirty air. Air pollution is caused by many different things. A major source of air pollution is the gas fumes from cars. Statistics show that 93 percent of all auto trips are within cities. Another major source of dirty air is the burning of coal and oil for energy. This energy is needed to make electricity. Of course, much more electricity is used in the city than in the country.
On the average, we throw away more trash and garbage than the year before. The burning of garbage contributes to air pollution. Many major industries are also responsible for the dirty air in the around cities. The fumes from iron, steel, chemical, and petroleum production add particles to the air.
The effects of air pollution range from mild headaches to death. The levels of pollution found in heavy for traffic may cause headaches for loss of clear vision. Wherever coal and oil are used for fuel, fumes may kill trees and plants and cause metal to corrode. In some of the larger cities, these fumes endanger the live of human beings by contributing to lung diseases and causing early death.
16. The key point of the passage is that _________.
A. the cause of air pollution is people
B. the causes and the effects of air pollution are both found in cities
C. the effects of air pollution range from headaches to death
D. air pollution is caused by dirty air
17. What is the purpose of this passage?
A. to persuade people to stop polluting the air B. to tell the causes of air pollution
C. to tell why cities are bad places to live D. to describe why cities are bad places to live
18. Why is air pollution more grave in the city than in the country?
A. Because there larger populations in cities. B. Because the air in the city is dirty.
C. Because there are more cars in the city.
D. Because there are much more gas fumes from cars and burning of coal and oil for energy in the city than in the country.
19. The fumes from coal and oil may cause metal ______.
A. to turn black B. to become rusty C. to corrode D. to twist
20. In larger cities, the fumes from coal and oil may contribute to ___________.
A. heart disease B. lung diseases C. loss of clear vision D. serious headache
【主要参考文献】
1、《名师指津.广东高考英语总复习》,蒋小青主编,广东旅游出版社,2011.6
2、《高考英语阅读技法与实践》,杨德启,赵立军编著,外文出版社,1999.3
3、《英语周报》,2012年版。
The keys to the exercises of reading skills
1、判断指代内容
1- C 2-C 3-B
2、语意转换题 (特殊疑问题)
1-C 2-D 3-B 4-C
3、是非判断题
1-C 2-D
1-3种阅读题型综合训练
1-D 2-B 3-A 4-C 5-A
4. 数字计算题:
Paragraph1: B. $ 62.50 Paragraph2: C. 15. Passage3: D. Fifteen times
5. 归纳主旨要义(中心思想): Passage1 1) C. 2) B. Passage2: A. Passage3: D.
6. 选择文章标题: Passage1: D. Passage2: C.
7. 猜测词句意义: Passage1: A. Passage2: A. Passage3: C.
8.先后排序题: passage1: B. Passage2: B.
9. 作者的观点态度题: Passage1:D. Passage2: C. Passage3: D Passage4: D.
10.推断题(infer):
I.明显推断题: Passage1 C. Passage2: D. Passage3 C.
II. 含蓄推断题 (推断写作目的; 推断文章出处 ):
1.推断写作目的题: Passage1: D. Passage2 : A.
2. 推断文章出处题: passage1: A. textbook
IV. 阅读理解综合题型演练
A篇(1-5) : BADCD B篇(6-10): BDDAC C篇(11-15) : ACCAD
D.篇(16-20):BADCB.
16、 B。主旨题。纵观全文,文章的前半部分讲的是导致污染的原因,而后半部分讲的是污染的结果。而A只强调起因,C只强调结果,D与本文没有什么关系。所以B为正确答案。
17. A。推理题。文章没有直接说写这篇文章的目的。但我们从受污染的结果可以推断出写这篇文章的目的就是要我们减少污染。所以A为正确答案。
18. D。细节题。第一段后半部分说明,空气污染的主要原因是汽车的废气和用来发电的煤和油的燃烧。而汽车和电在城市里比在郊区用得多。故D正确。
19. C。细节题。文章最后一段第三句直接提到:wherever coal and oil are used for fuel, fumes may … cause metal to corrode.。所以C为正确答案。
20. B。细节题。根据文章最后一句“these fumes endanger the lives of human beings by contributing to lung diseases and causing early death.”可知,B为正确答案。

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