第五讲语法填空无单词提示题型秒杀技巧 秒词邦

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第五讲语法填空无单词提示题型秒杀技巧

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第一步:冠词

一、不定冠词的用法

1

指一类人或事,相当于a kind of

A plane is a machine   that can fly.(泛指)

2

第一次提及某人某物,非特指

A boy is waiting for   you.

3

表示每一相当于everyone

We study eight hours a   day.

4

表示相同相当于the same

We are nearly of an age.

5

用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或事

— Hello, could I speak   to Mr. Smith?

—Sorry, wrong number.   There isn't______ Mr. Smith here.

That boy is rather a Lei   Feng.(活雷锋)

6

用于固定词组中

a couple of, a bit, once   upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time

7

用于quite, rather, many, half, what, such之后

This room is rather a   big one.

8

用于so(as, too, how)+形容词之后

She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet.

9

用于抽象名词具体化的名词前

success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化)成功的人或事

a   failure 失败的人或事    a   shame   带来耻辱的人或事

a pity   可惜或遗憾的事   a must 必需必备的事

a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识

二、定冠词的用法

1

表示某一类人或物

In many places in China,   ___ bicycle is still ___ popular means of transportation.

2

用于世上独一无二的事物名词前

the universe, the moon,   the Pacific Ocean

3

表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事

Would you mind opening   the door?

Do you know the girl   standing inside the classroom?

不管是the girl 还是the girl都是对话的双方都知道的,确定的某个人或者某个事。

4

用于演奏乐器(球类不加)

play the violin, play the   guitar

5

用于形容词和分词前表示一类人

the reach, the living,   the wounded

6

表示一家人夫妇(对比上文的不定冠词用法5

—Could you tell me the   way to ____ Johnsons, please?
  —Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in the village.

7

用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前

He is the taller of the   two children.

最高级前肯定需要加;比较级一般是在指明说两者之中比较高的那个,其实也是被特指话。

8

用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前

the United States, the   Communist Party of China, the French

9

用于表示发明物的单数名词前

The compass was invented   in China.

10

在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代

in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代)

注:世纪中英文表达有差异,中翻英要减一,英翻中要加一(如何记?咱汉语比较高端,所以翻译成中文后要加一,反之)

11

用于表示度量单位的名词前

I hired the car by the   hour.

12

用于方位名词,身体部位名词

He patted me on the   shoulder.

三、不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法

1

专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前

Beijing University(本来就是唯一的,不需要特指不特指),

Jack(本来就是唯一的,不需要特指不特指);

China(本来就是唯一的,不需要特指不特指);

love(比较虚的东西,看不见的东西,不好特指,当然更不好用不定冠词a;

air(比较虚的东西,看不见的东西,不好特指,当然更不好用不定冠词a

2

名词前有this, my, whose, some, no, each, every等限制

I want this book, not   that one. / Whose purse is this?

3

季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前

March, Sunday, National   Day, spring

4

表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前

Lincoln was made   President of America.

5

表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前

He likes playing   football/chess.

6

by连用表示交通方式的名词前

We went right round to   the west coast by ______ sea instead of driving across ______ continent.

7

and连接的两个相对的名词并用时

husband and wife, knife   and fork, day and night

8

表示泛指的复数名词前

Horses are useful   animals.

 

四、固定搭配

1. 定冠词固定搭配

make(get)   the best of

/on the   contrary

in the end

with the   help of

the same

the other

by the way

take the   place of

in the day

in (the)   front of

all the year   around

the same as

at the age   of

at the   beginning of

the more,the   better

all the time  

all over the   country

On the   right/left

On the whole

To tell you   the truth

       

2. 不定冠词搭配

a bit of

do sb a   favor

after a   while

a few

in a word

as a whole

in a hurry

in a way

as a matter   of fact

as a rule

once in a   while

have a look

play a joke   on

have a rest

have a good time

make a   mistake

a   great(good) many

make a   living

all of a   sudden

keep an eye   on

in a low   voice

have a   population of

once upon a   time

a number of

Have a big   breakfast

         

 

3. 零冠词搭配(以下为常见错误)

have a   supper

in an   English

for an   example

on a time

a kinds of

lose the   heart

a child as   he is

in the   prison

he become a   President of a company

by a car

at the night

at the last

in the   September

on the   Monday

the class   two

by a mistake

in the place   of(替代)

at the   dinner(吃饭)

 

4. 可数名词具体化

1. 表示某种情感:joy, delight ,sorrow,shock, pity ,shame, pleasure, comfort, relief,disappointment

2. 表某种具体意义/事情/人:history, knowledge, experience, help, danger, failuresuccesssurprisebeautypridehonorpleasure

3. 强调某种具体的表现形式:have a wonderful supper/have a strong character/have a bright future/have a good time
have a population of/have a good knowledge/understanding of

但是并非所有的不可数名词都能具体化。高中阶段常见的总是不可数的名词有6个:news, information, advice, weather,fun,furniture

第二步:介词

序号
介词
介词用法
举例
1
In
1. 表时间:在什么时间段;
2. 表地点:在什么大的地方
3. 用什么语言(说哪个东西)
1. In winter/in the morning/in May
2. In Shanghai/In China/In the school
3. In English.
2
on
1. 表时间:在某一天、某个星期几或具体的某个早上、上午或下午。
2. 表地点:在某个物体的上面
3. ……方面
1. On 12nd,May,2017/on Monday/on the moring of March 3rd2017
2. On the desk
3. I have a book on history.
3
at
1. 表时间:在哪个时间点
2. 表地点:在哪个小地方
3. ……方面
1. At 3:00 in the afternoon
2. At school
3. I am good at singing.
4
from
1. 来自
2. …………
1. I am from Beijing
2. I must read from 14:00-15:00.
5
for
1. 为了
2. 
3. 对于
1. My mother boug a book for me
2. This is for you
3. The T-shirt is too big for me.
6
to
1. ……地方去
2. 对于
3. To+do(这时并不是介词,而是非谓语动词动词不定式的标志:to do形式)
1. Go to school
2. He is quite good to me
3. I want to go there.
7
with
1. 和(从属关系,而不像and属于并列关系)
2. 带有
3. 固定搭配
1. I want to go to school with you.
2. I have a house with a garden.
3. Help sb with; be good with
8
behind
……后面
There is a dog behind the door.
9
by
1. 乘坐
2. 
3. 通过
4. ……旁边
1. By sea/bike/plane
2. I was given up(抛弃) by my mother.
3. I improve(改进) my English by reading.
4. There is a house by the sea.
10
about
1. 大约
2. 关于
3. 周围
1. About 60 students are in the classroom
2. This book is about Chinese history
3. I want to walk about this school
11
after
……之后
Three hours after/after 10 days
12
of
……的。相当于形容词,如beautiful(如果前后均为名词,则通常从后往前翻译,但是of相关的短语除外)
This is a photo of my father.
13
Without
没有
Without the sun, nothing would grow.

常见介词短语:

缺某个意义

in, on, at, with, as(), before,   after, by, from, through, to, for,through,without,over,above,about,of,before,up,off,for,by,during,from,since,instead,till,until,within,into,outside,inside,between,among,below,under,near,beside,around,out,along,across,like,against,for,off,back,except,as   well as/according

to/across/Against/along/among/beneath/beyond/without/toward(s)

和动词搭配

Congragulations(永远是复数)ongrow upon purpose(故意)、participate inprepare sb for sthbe famous for/graduated from/some,others/one,the other,as   usual,be sick with,be strickt with/by means of/work out/apply for/in favour   of 赞成,支持/regardless   of 不管,不顾/fed up with   受够了,饱受,厌烦/be full of 充满/help sb with/go back to/as soon as /as well as/such as/too**to/so*that/so that/be angry with/get   on well with sb/make one’s way to 走去/in fact/run away/laugh at/stop…from… 阻止…/as if 好像/as soon as possible尽可能早地/be amazed at感到惊讶/be busy doing忙着做/cut down 砍倒/regard…as… 当作…/if possible 如果可能的话/speak highly of 称赞

 

第三步:连词

并列连词

并列连词可用来连接词与词,词组与词组,分句与分句。常用的并列连词有:and(和),as well as(既又),both … and(不但而且),not only … but also(不但而且),not … but(不是而是),neither … nor(既不也不),either … or(不是就是),or(或者),but (但是),yet(然而),for(因为),so(所以),while(而),when(这时)等。如:Both my brother and my sister are teachers./ His   room is bright but mine is gloomy(暗沉沉的)./ He can not only repair radios but also fix   them./ It is a glorious(光荣的)yet difficult task./ Strike while iron is hot.

 

从属连词

首先:定语从句

关系词

先行词

从句成分

   

   

关系代

who

主语(口语中也可作宾语)

Do you know the man who   is talking with your mother?

whom, whichthat在从句中做宾语时,常可以省略,但介词提前时后面关系代词不能省略,也不可以用that

whom

宾语

Mr. Smith is the person   with whom I am working

whose

人或物

定语

I like those books whose   topics are about history.

that

人或物

主语,宾语

A plane is a machine   that can fly.

which

主语,宾语

The book (which) I gave   you was worth $10.

as

人或物

主语,宾语

He is such a person as   is respected by all of us.

as做宾语一般不省略

关系副

when

时间

时间状语

I will never forget the   day when we met there.

可用on which

where

地点

地点状语

This is the house where   I was born.

可用in which

why

原因

原因状语

I can’t imagine the   reason why he turned down my offer.

可用for which

其次:其他从句

种类

关联词

     

     

 

 

 

that

That he will come and   help you is certain.

that在引导主语从句时不可省去

whether

Whether there is life on   the moon is an interesting question.

主语从句中只能用whether不可用if

连接代词

who

what

which

whatever

What he wants to tell us   is not clear. Who will win the match is still unknown.

主语从句放在句首,句子常显得笨重,因此一般

连接副词

when

where

why

how

It is known to us how he   became a writer.

Where the English   evening will be held has not yet been announced.

把它移到句子后面,前面用引导词“it”来作形式主语。

陈述意义

 

that

 

I believe(that) he is   honest.

We must never   think(that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing.

that在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。

疑问意义

if

whether

I wonder whether he will   come or not.

Everything depends on   whether we have enough money.

I don’t know if(whether)   it is interesting.

He doesn’t care if it   isn’t a fine day.

1. whether常与or not连用,不能用if代替。

2. 作介词宾语要用whether不能用if

3. 从句是否定句时一般用if引导。

4. 在主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句中只能用whether连接,不用ife.g. Whether the meeting   will be put off has not been decided yet.

5. whether 可引导一个让步状语从句,而if不能。e.g. Whether he comes or not, we will begin our   party on time.

6. doubt 用于肯定结构时,后面用whether/if 引导名词性从句;用于否定结构或疑问结构时,后面用that引导名词性从句。be sure用于肯定句或疑问句时,后接that引导的名词性从句;用于否定句时,后接whether/if 引导的名词性从句。e.g. We doubt whether/ if   he can win the game.

特殊疑问意义

who, whom,

which,whose,

what, when,

where, why,

how,whoever,

whatever,

whichever

Please tell me what you   want.

She always thinks   of   how she can work well.

She will give whoever   needs help a warm support.

1

如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,将从句后置。

We must make it clear   that anyone who breaks the law will be punished.

2

think,believe,imagine,suppose等动词引出的宾语从句,要将从句中的否定形式,移到主句中。

We don’t think you are   right.

I don’t believe he will   do so.

连词

that

whether

as if

The problem is(that)   they can’t get here early enough.

It looks as if it’s   going to rain.

在非正式的文体中that可以省去

表语从句位于主句系动词之后

系动词表

系动词种类

列举

状态系动词

be

持续系动词

keep, rest, remain,    stay, lie, stand

表象系动词

seem, appear, look

感官系动词

fe

l, smell, sound, taste

变化系动词

become, grow, turn,    fall, get, go, come, run

终止系动词

prove, turn out表达变成证实

 

连接代词

who

what

which

That’s just what I want.   The question is who(which of you) will be the next speaker.

连接副词

when

where

why

how

This is where our   problem lies.

这就是我们的问题所在。

That is why he didn’t   come to the meeting.

由连词that引导,不担任成分,也可有when, how, where等引导。

The news that he had   landed on the moon spread all over the world.

I have no idea when he   will come back home.

The thought came to him   that Mary had probably fallen ill.

同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容,常用的名词如:fact, news, idea, hope,   thought,question, order, fear, doubt, word, proof belief, story等。

               

状语从句:

 

从属连词

    

When

whenever

When I came into the room, he was writing a letter.

We shall go there whenever we are free.

when

I was walking along the street when suddenly someone patted me   on the shoulder from behind.

while

While it was raining, they went out.

I stayed while he was away.

as

He hurried home, looking behind as he went.

before

Be a pupil before you become a teacher.

after

He arrived after the game started.

till

We waited till (until)he came back .

until

She didn’t stop working until eleven o’clock .

Until he had passed out of sight, she stood there.

since

as soon as

Great changes have taken place in China since 1978.

As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I’ll write to you.

hardly…when

no sooner…than

I had hardly got home when it began to rain.

=Hardly had I got home when it began to rain.

No sooner had we got to the station than the train left.

Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop.

every time, by the time, the moment

Every time I travelled by boat, I got seasick.

The moment I heard the song, I felt cheerful.

Next time you come ,you’ll see him.

where

wherever

Where there is a will, there is a way.

Where there is water there is life.

You are free to go wherever you like.

Wherever you go, you must obey the law.

because

I came back late yesterday because I was on duty.

since

Since everyone is here, let’s begin our meeting.

as

As he didn’t know much English, he looked up the word in the   dictionary .

now that, seeing that

Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we can start our journey.

Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for the doctor.

 

that

so that

in order that

lest = for fear that

I shall write down your telephone number that I may not forget.

They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish   the work ahead of time .

so that

so…that

We turned up the radio, so that everyone heard the news.

He was so excited that he couldn’t say a word.

such…that

He gave such important reasons that he was excused.

It is such an interesting novel that all of us want to read it.

 

if

unless

as/so long as

in case

so far as

Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid of them.

We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains.

= We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn’t rain.

So/As long as you work hard, you will succeed.

In case I forget, please remind me about it .

as

as if…

as though

Draw a cat as I taught you .

She looks as if she is ill.

He acted as if (though) nothing had happened.

 

although

though

Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) he began to learn   French.

We were not tired though (although) we had worked all day.

even if,even though

I’ll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow.

as

Child as he is , he knows a lot .

Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the children play outdoors.

no matter (who, what when, where which, how…)

Do it no matter what others say.

No matter how busy he was, he studied English every day

wh+ever (whatever whoever ,whenever whichever ,however)

Whatever happens / may happen , we shall not lose heart. Whoever   comes, he will be welcome.

as…as ,

not so/as…as

the same…as

such…as

Mary is as old as my sister.

He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack (does).

His book is the same as mine.

Henry is not such a good worker as Peter .

…than…

She has made greater progress this year than she did last year.

He bought fewer books than I (did).

the more

…the more…

The more you read, the better you understand.

The more tickets you sell, the more money you will get.

The harder you work, the greater progress you will make.


 


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