中考英语作文书面表达满分技巧

2020-01-29 19:26| 发布者: admin| 查看: |

                    中考英语书面表达及其解题方法
【考点扫描】书面表达是每年中考必考题型,是考查学生交际能力的一个重要组成部分。书面表达通常有三种形式:
1、书信、日记、通知、留言、假条;2、看图作文;3、根据汉语提示作文。
    无论是那一种书面表达形式,考生所写的短文都要紧扣主题、文理通顺,要素完整,语言准确、得当、格式正确、无大、小写和拼写错误,标点符号正确,能达到交际目的。
解题方法
一. 训练方法
1. 记。认真系统复习和背诵基础知识和优美的句子、句型。中国有句古话,叫“熟读唐诗三百首,不会吟诗也会作”。同样,要使自己具有较强的写作能力,首先应该熟读和背诵一些句型和短文。许多同学写出来的语言根本不符合英语的语言习惯,相当一部分人有对照中文逐字翻译的不良习惯,不去理会中英文的差异。大量的背诵和阅读是提高写作能力的有效办法,同学们若有大量的现成语言积累在脑海里,自己写起文段来,就可以做到脱口而出,或是模仿、套用,甚至发挥。
2. 练。每练一篇书面表达题,都要真正学到一点东西,不可贪多而边学边忘。平时可以采用循序渐进、灵活多样的练习方式。从根据提示词写单句开始,到写单句,然后到写几句话,最后到写流利的文段。尽量尝试多种形式的写作,如短信、说明、通知、便条、明信片、看图写作、根据表格或记录写短文等。
3. 写。要进行实战写作。要求自己在20分钟内写出100个词的短文,并且质量高、内容全、形式正确。这样形成习惯,考试时就能得心应手。  
二. 应试策略
1. 审题目:要切中题意。《中考考试说明》指出,书面表达要切中题意。怎样才能切中题意?就是要认真审题,看到考题后,先不要急于动笔,要仔细看清题目要求的内容。在自己的头脑中构思出一个框架或画面,确定短文的中心思想,不要匆匆下笔,看懂题意,根据图画、图表、提纲或短文提供的资料和信息来审题。审题要审格式、体裁、人物关系、故事情节、主体时态、活动时间、地点等。
2. 圈要点:防止遗漏要点。要点是给分的一个重要因素。为了防止写作过程中遗漏要点,同学们要充分发挥自己的观察力,把情景中给出的各个要点逐条列出。
3. 列提纲:为写作做好准备。根据文章要点短文的中心思想将主要句型、关键词记下,形成提纲。
4. 定基调:定出时态、人称、顺序、开头、结尾。
5. 写全文:写短文时要做到以下六个方面:
(1)避免使用汉语式英语,尽量使用自己熟悉的句型。几种句型可交替使用,以避免重复和呆板。
(2)多用简单句型,记事、写人一般都不需要复杂的句型。可适当多使用陈述句、一般疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。不用或少用非谓语或情态动词等较复杂的句型。
(3)注意语法、句法知识的灵活运用。
1)语态、时态要准确无误。   2)主谓语要一致,主语的人称和数要和谓语一致。
3)注意人称代词的宾格形式。    4)注意冠词用法,例如: He is an honest student.中的an不能写成a。
5)注意拼写、标点符号和大小写,例如:receive, believe, fourteen, forty, ninth, restaurant等。
(4)描写人物时,要生动具体,例如:
1)外表特征:tall, short, fat, thin, strong, weak, ordinary-looking 等。
2)服饰颜色:red, yellow, blue, white, green, brown, black 等。
3)内心境界:glad, happy, sad, excited, anxious, interested 等。
4)感情描写:love, like, hate, feel, laugh, cry, smile, shout 等。
5)动作描写:come, go, get, have, take, bring, fetch 等。
(5)上下文要连贯。上下文的连贯性也是评分的一条原则,因此同学们应把写好的句子,根据故事情节,事情发生的先后次序(时间或空间),使用一些表示并列、递进等过渡词进行加工整理,使文章连贯、自然、流畅。同学们应注意下面过渡的用法:
1)表示并列关系的:and, as well as, or… 2)表示转折关系的:but, yet, however… 3)表示时间关系的:when, while, after, before, then, after that… 4)表示因果关系的:so, therefore ,as a result… 5)表示目的的:in order to, in order that , so as to, so that… 6)表示列举的:for example , such as… 7)表示总结性的:in general, in all, in a word, generally speaking…
(6)不会表达,另辟蹊径。中考作文给分是以要点和语言准确度而定,不以文采打分。造句越简单准确越好,造复合句容易出错,容易被扣分,阅卷场上有句话:“错误面前人人平等,文采好不加分”。如遇到个别要点表达不出来或难以表达,可采用变通的办法,化难为易,化繁为简。总之,所造句子要正确、得体、符合英语表达习惯。
(6)改病句:认真检查,改正错误。中考作文时,由于时间紧、内容多,同学们出错在所难免。因此,改错这一环节必不可少。中考作文评卷是根据要点、语言准确性、上下文的连贯性来给分,根据错误多少来扣分。因此,中考时花几分钟时间用来检查错误显得尤为重要。检查错误应从以下几个方面入手:
1)格式是否有错。       2)拼写有无错误。            3)语言是否用错。
4)时态、语态错误。     5)标点错误。                6)人称是否用错。
三. 注意事项
书面表达要特别注意书写工整,卷面整洁。每年阅卷老师在十来天的时间里要看十几万考生的作文,工作量之大,时间之紧,可想而知。书写是否工整,卷面是否整洁与得分高低直接有关。
【中考范例】
VII. 书面表达(共1题,计10分)
假如你叫张强。请根据下面美国朋友Bob的来信内容,结合你自己的情况写一篇语言连惯、符合逻辑的英文回信。要求:1. 认真阅读来信的内容,从中获得你需要的信息。
2. 词数:80左右。回信的开头、结尾已给出,但不计入总词数。
注意:回信中不得出现你的真实地址和所在学校的名称。
Dear friend,
Hello!I’m your new friend. My name is Bob. I’m fifteen. I’m American. I live in New York.
I am a middle school student. I’m good at maths. It is very interesting. My favourite sport is basketball. And I am not only a basketball fan but also a good player. I like pop music. My friends and I often sing pop songs together.
After school, I am interested in getting on-line. I have known a lot about China from the Internet. Now I’m learning Chinese. I hope I will visit your country one day.
Please write to me and tell me something about your life. I’m looking forward to hearing from you.
Yours,
Bob
Dear Bob,
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________                                                            Yours,
                                                          Zhang Qiang
【解析】根据前面提到第六个步骤,我们来写一下这篇书面表达。
1.审题目:通过审题目我们可以知道:本篇书面表达应是写一封回信,写信人是张强,收信人是Bob,信的内容应是介绍张强自己的情况。
2. 圈要点:根据来信判断,写回信必须包括以下要点:1、收到对方的来信;2、愿意和对方交朋友;3、自己的姓名、年龄和住址;4、自己的身份、特长和爱好; 5、自己的希望。
3、列提纲:1. got your letter 2. glad to be your friend 3. name, zhang Qiang, fifteen, live in Shaanxi 4. a middle school student, like English, like sports, good at drawing, 5. hope we’ll meet in China
4、定基调:1. 时态:收到来信用一般过去时,介绍情况用一般现在时,希望用一般将来时。2. 人称用第一人称。3.可按提纲的顺序来写。4. 开头和结尾题目已经给出。
5、写全文:
Dear Bob,
    I got your letter yesterday. I’m very glad to be your pen friend. My name is Zhang Qiang. I’m fifteen years old, too. I live in Shaanxi.
 I’m a middle school student, too. I like English and physics very much. I also like sports, but I’m good at drawing. I know a little about America. Could you tell me something more about your country in your next letter?
I hope we’ll meet in China some day. I’m sure we’ll have a good time together.
Please write (to) me soon.
Yours,
Zhang Qiang
6、改病句:认真复查一边,如有错误,加以改正。
【满分演练】
                             (1)
华山是中国名山之一。假设外国友人到你校参观后,准备去旅游。请根据以下
要点向外国友人简单介绍华山(the Hua Mountain)
1.位于陕西东部,是中国著名的旅游胜地,每年有大批中外游客前去旅游观光。
2.乘汽车去大约要花1个小时;也可以乘火车去。
3.登山便可领略其云海(the sea of clouds)、奇松(wondrous pines)、怪石(unique
rocks)等秀丽的风景及清晨美丽的日出。
注意:    1.字数:80词左右。    2.请不要逐字翻译。
(2)根据提示和要求完成下面短文
假如你(Li Lei)在去年夏令营认识的一个朋友Jim从英国给你寄来一件礼物—— 一件红色的衬衫,并附有一封信。在信中他向你问好,他想知道你近来在忙些什么。请你给他写一封回信(100个词左右)表示感谢。回信要包括以下内容:
1. 向Jim问好并对他表示感谢。
2. 礼物是你最喜欢的颜色,尺寸很合适,你非常喜欢。
3. 告诉Jim你近来很好,上周刚过完生日,生日聚会很热闹。询问Jim的近况,并表示希望他能来中国。
注意1. 信的格式已经给出。
2. 信中不得使用真实的人名、地名。
(3)根据中文意思和英文提示词语,写出意思连贯、符合逻辑的英文文段。所给英文提示词语必须都用上,中文提示内容不必逐句翻译,每组英文提示所写出的句数不限。
今天是6月23日星期日,天气晴朗。你和你的同学张宏参观了西安市动物园。那里的动物十分有趣,人见人爱。当你看到有位游客在向猴子投喂食物时,就上前阻止并说……
请你用英文写一篇日记,记述今天的经历。(请注意日记格式)
1.fine day, sun, bright    2.visit, Beijing Zoo    3.animal, so interesting, people, love     4.see, visitor, throw…to, stop, say
                            (4)
根据中文设置的情景、英文提示词语以及表格所提供的信息,写出语法正确、意思连贯、符合逻辑的英文文段。
注意1. 字数60~80。
2. 所给的英文提示词语及表格所提供的信息必须都用上。(可适当发挥)
3. 发言稿的开头和结尾已给出。
假设你是张斌,今年暑假你将参加学校组织的赴加拿大“绿色之旅”夏令营活动。请你准备一篇在开营式上的自我介绍发言稿。
  name, Zhang Bin, fifteen years old, live in Xi’an, favorite subject, biology…

Interest Free Time Activities Future Job Hope
drawing go camping,
draw pictures of plants,
enjoy the singing of birds in nature
biologist,
grow up
good friends,
do one’s best,
make the earth…
 
Dear friends
I’m very glad to introduce myself to you._______________________________
(5)根据中文提示和英文提示词语写一篇短文。
    今年暑假,有一批美国中学生要来你们学校访问。请你写一篇有关西安的简介,以便和他们交流。
    注意:1.字数100左右;  2.必须使用所给英文提示。
Capital of Shaanxi,             Lie in the Northwest,            many places of interest,            autumn, best season
(6)看图写话。
 
  根据以上四幅图和提示词语,写出一篇语法正确、意思连贯、语句通顺、符合逻辑的短文,开头已给出。
要求:1. 叙述要用第三人称。2. 词数60~80个左右。
3. 要表达自己的看法或想法。4. 选用下列词语:rush hour, cross, make sure, come over, traffic rules
Last Monday, Tim got up at 7:40 in the morning.
(7)请你参考图文提示,写一篇60~80词的短文。
注意:1. 语言规范,语意完整,内容丰富。2. 表达符合图意,书写规范。3. 给出自己的观点。4. 文章的开头已给出。
 
参考词:pollute, turn off the tap(水龙头),dry, save(节约 vt.), water resources(水资源)
From the pictures we know that _______________________________________
(8)请根据下面四幅图,写一篇70个单词左右的短文。文章开头已经给出,不算入总词汇数内。
参考词汇: on fire 着火firefighter n.消防员put out 灭火
 
Jack was woken up by the shouting “Fire! Help! Fire! Help!...”
____________________________________________________________________________________
(9)看图写话。
 
要求:1. 根据图画所提供的语境,写出意思连贯、语言流畅、语法准确、符合逻辑的短文。    2. 至少使用两种时态,70词以上。TAKING CARE OF TREES
One day Lin Tao and Mei Mei were playing in the garden.
(10)根据所给图画用英语写一篇约80词的短文。
 
(11)假如你所在的学校要出一期英语壁报。你准备就自己经历的一件事写一篇英语短文向壁报投稿。下面五幅图记录了你上个星期六与老师和同学到南河边参加植树活动的全过程。请你就以下五幅图写一篇英文短文。 
注意:1. 短文内容要包括所有图画中的主要内容2. 词数:70~903. 生词提示: 桶bucket锄头hoe
(12)请按照下面6幅图和表格的提示,写一篇题为“Changes in Our Hometown”的英语短文。        
 
内容要点:
过去                          现在
旧房                          高楼
河水污浊                   河水清澈
步行、骑自行车          乘公交车、小汽车
Changes in Our Hometown
Over the past ten years, great changes have taken place in our hometown. In the past,___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
参考范文
(1)  The Hua Mountain is one of the most famous mountains in China. It lies in the east of Shaanxi.  Every year thousands of Chinese and foreigners pay a visit there. It’s not far from here. It takes you about one hour to get there by bus. You can also go there by train. When you are at the top of the mountain, you’ll find clouds, wondrous pines and unique rocks around you. In the early morning when the sun rises, the sky looks very beautiful. It’s really a nice place to visit.
 
 (2) 36 Zhonghua street
Xi’an, China
June21st, 2004
Dear Jim:
How are you? Many thanks for the shirt! I’m very happy to hear from you again. I love the shirt very much, Jim, and red is my favorite color! You remembered! It’s just my size. Every time I wear it, I will think of you.
I’m fine here in China. Last week I had a birthday party. Many of my classmates came and my mother made us a lot of good food. We really had a wonderful time together. How are you doing in England, Jim? I miss you very much. I always miss the days we were together last summer. I hope you can come to China someday.
Please write back soon.
Your friend,
Li Lei

(3)Sunday June 23rd
  It was a fine day today and the sun was bright. I visited Xi’an Zoo with my classmate, Zhang Hong. The animals there were so interesting that all the people loved them. When I saw a visitor throwing food to the monkeys, I went/ran to stop him/her and said, “Animals are our friends and we must take good care of them.”
 
(4)Dear friends,
  I’m very glad to introduce myself to you. My name is Zhang Bin. I’m fifteen years old. I live in Beijing. One of my favorite subjects is biology. I’m interested in drawing. In my free time, I often go camping, draw some pictures of plants, and enjoy the singing of birds in nature. I want to be a biologist when I grow up.
  I feel lucky to join you. I hope we can be good friends and do our best to make   That’s all. Thank you for listening.
 
(5) Xi’an is the capital of Shanxi with a long history. There are many places of interest, such as the Dayan Pagoda, the Xiaoyan Pagoda, the Bell Tower and the Terra Cotta Warriors. Since it lies in the Northwest of China, the winter here is long and it sometimes snows. Autumn is the best season in Xi’an, for it’s neither too cold nor too hot. One of the most famous traditional foods is “Yangroupao”.  
 
 (6)Last Monday, Tim got up at 7:40 in the morning. It was the rush hour. He rode his bike to school very fast. He was crossing the street when a car came at that moment. Tim’s bike hit the car and he fell to the ground heavily. The driver was very kind and stopped to make sure that Tim was all right. Then a policeman came over. He told Tim to ride more slowly next time and it was dangerous. Tim thanked him and went to school. All of the young men should obey the traffic rules.
 
(7)  From the pictures we know that much water has been polluted. Some factories are pouring waste water into rivers and lakes. The water becomes dirty and lots of fish have died. Many people often waste water. For example, they often forget to turn off the taps. If we don’t have enough water, land will be dry and crops will die. We can’t live without water. So we should try our best and encourage everyone to protect water resources. We must save water and stop polluting it. If we do that, Things will be much better.
 
 (8)  Jack was woken up by the shouting “Fire! Help! Fire! Help!...” What had happened? He looked out of the window. Wow! He found that his neighbour’s house was on fire. Jack jumped off the bed and rushed to the telephone. He made a call to the police. Then, he ran out and helped his neighbour (to) fight against the fire. Soon the fire fighters came and in a short time the fire was put out. And the house owner and fire fighters thanked Jack and his neighbours a lot.
 
 (9)                  TAKING CARE OF TREES
One day Lin Tao and Mei Mei were playing in the garden. They found that a young tree there was dying. They thought they must save the young tree. Then they put a rope around the tree and watered it. Some days later the tree came back to life again. Their mother saw this and praised them, “You are good children!”
 
 (10)  Yesterday afternoon Li Ping and I were going to school. On the way we saw an old woman crossing the street. Suddenly a car passed by very fast. The old woman was frightened and fell down to the ground. The apples in her basket were all out on the street. Immediately, we ran to the old woman, helped her get up and picked up all the apples. Li Ping helped her carry the basket and I helped her cross the street. The old woman thanked us very much.
 
(11)内容要点:
(1)上星期五老师告诉我们“明天去南河边植树”。(2)上星期六(第二天)早上六点半我就起床了。
(3)我带着桶去学校,同学们带着桶、锄头在校门口等待。
(4)到南河边,我们开始植树。(也可描写动场面。)(5)看着新种下的树,我们都很高兴。
Last Friday, our teacher told us that we would go to plant trees by the South River the next day. On Saturday morning I got up at six thirty and went to school with a bucket.  My classmates were waiting at the school gate with buckets and hoes.
When we got to the South River, we began to plant trees on the river bank. (On the river bank, some students were digging holes, the others were planting or watering the young trees.)
After we finished our work, we were happy to see the young trees we planted on the river bank.
 
(12) Over the past ten years, great changes have taken place in our hometown. In the past, the houses in our hometown were very poor, but now many people have moved into tall buildings (there are many tall buildings here and there). The water in the rivers was very dirty, but now the rivers are clean and people can swim in them. People used to walk or ride bikes, but now they can take buses or drive their own cars to go to work.
 

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